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Oliver Cromwell - regicide cult, Zionism + Masonry origins?

 
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simplesimon
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 17, 2009 4:44 pm    Post subject: Oliver Cromwell - tool of Masonic revolution and control? Reply with quote

see also
Oliver Cromwell - regicide cult, Zionism + Masonry origins?
http://www.911forum.org.uk/board/viewtopic.php?t=23795

previous topic title
Cromwell - tool of Masonic revolution and control


Cromwell
Film
4 stars!

Saturday 17 January, 2:15pm - 4:30pm, BBC2

Richard Harris's aggressive warts-and-all Oliver Cromwell and Alec Guinness's unyielding Charles I make this a historical double act well worth catching. They bring past politics to vivid life and put paid to the idea that right and grace were on the side of royalist Cavaliers as opposed to the Puritan Roundheads. The usually undervalued writer/director Ken Hughes was given an enormous budget for a British film at the time, and the result is a long-winded but compelling epic with some mighty battles mightily well staged.


"bring past politics to vivid life" Yeah right.

http://www.sweetliberty.org/issues/wars/nameless/1.shtml


from "The Nameless War"

THE BRITISH REVOLUTION



"It was fated that England should be the first of a series of Revolutions, which is not yet finished."

With these cryptic words Isaac Disraeli, father of Benjamin Earl of Beaconsfield, commenced his two volume life of Charles I published in 1851. A work of astonishing detail and insight, much information for which, he states, was obtained from the records of one Melchior de Salom, French envoy in England during that period.

The scene opens with distant glimpses of the British Kingdom based upon Christianity, and its own ancient traditions; these sanctions binding Monarchy, Church, State, nobles and the people in one solemn bond on the one hand; on the other hand, the ominous rumblings of Calvinism.

Calvin, who came to Geneva from France, where his name was spelt Cauin, *possibly a French effort to spell Cohen, organized great numbers of revolutionary orators, not a few of whom were inflicted upon England and Scotland. Thus was laid the groundwork for revolution under a cloak of religious fervour.

*Note. At a B'nai B'rith meeting in Paris reported in 'Catholic Gazette' in Feb 1936 he was claimed to be of Jewish extraction.

On both sides of the Tweed these demagogues contracted all religion into rigid observance of the "Sabbath." To use the words of Isaac Disraeli,

"The nation was artfully divided into Sabbatarians and Sabbath breakers."

"Calvin deemed the Sabbath to have been a Jewish ordinance, limited to the sacred people."

He goes on to say that when these Calvinists held the country in their power,

"it seemed that religion chiefly consisted of Sabbatarian rigours; and that a British senate had been transformed into a company of Hebrew Rabbins":

and later

"In 1650, after the execution of the King, an Act was passed inflicting penalties for a breach of the Sabbath."

Buckingham, Strafford and Laud are the three chief figures round the King in these early stages: Men on whose loyalty to himself, the nation, and the ancient tradition Charles can rely.

Buckingham, the trusted friend of King James I, and of those who had saved his life at the time of the Gowrie Conspiracy (of ominous cabalistic associations) was assassinated in the early years of King Charles' reign under mysterious circumstances.

Strafford, who had been in his early days inclined to follow the opposite faction, later left them; and became a staunch and devoted adherent of the King.

This opposition faction became steadily more hostile to Charles and by the time that they were led by Pym and decided to impeach Strafford. "The King," writes Disraeli, "regarded this faction as his enemies"; and he states that the head of this faction was the Earl of Bedford.

Walsh, the eminent Catholic historian, states that a Jew wine merchant named Roussel was the founder of this family in Tudor times. With the impeachment and execution of Strafford, the powers behind the rising Calvinist, or Cohenist, Conspiracy began to reveal themselves, and their focus, the City of London.

At this time there suddenly began to appear from the City armed mobs of "Operatives" (the medieval equivalent for "workers" no doubt). Let me quote Disraeli:

"They were said to amount to ten thousand ...

with war-like weapons. It was a militia for insurgency at all seasons, and might be depended upon for any work of destruction at the cheapest rate ...

as these sallied forth with daggers and bludgeons (from the city) the inference is obvious that this train of explosion must have been long laid."

It must indeed; and we must recollect here, that at this time Strafford was still unexecuted, and civil war in the minds of none but of those behind the scenes, who evidently had long since resolved upon and planned it.

These armed mobs of "workers" intimidated all and sundry, including both Houses of Parliament and the Palace at critical moments, exactly on the model employed later by the "Sacred Bands" and the "Marseillais" in the French Revolution.

Isaac Disraeli draws again and again startling parallels between this and the French Revolution; Notably in his passages on {b]the Press, "no longer under restraint,"[/b] and the deluge of revolutionary pamphlets and leaflets. He writes:

"From 1640 to 1660, about 30,000 appear to have started up."

And later,

"the collection of French revolutionary pamphlets now stands by the side of the French tracts of the age of Charles I, as abundant in number and as fierce in passion. . .

Whose hand behind the curtain played the strings . . .

could post up a correct list of 59 commoners, branding them with the odious title of 'Straffordians or betrayers of their country'."

Whose hand indeed? But Disraeli who knew so much, now discreetly draws a veil over that iron curtain; and it is left to us to complete the revelation.

To do so we must turn to such other works as the Jewish Encyclopedia, Sombart's work, The Jews and Modern Capitalism, and others. From these we learn that Cromwell, the chief figure of the revolution, was in close contact with the powerful Jew financiers in Holland; and was in fact paid large sums of money by Manasseh Ben Israel; whilst Fernandez Carvajal, "The Great Jew" as he was called, was the chief contractor of the New Model Army.

In The Jews in England we read:

"1643 brought a large contingent of Jews to England, their rallying point was the house of the Portuguese Ambassador De Souza, a Marano (secret Jew). Prominent among them was Fernandez Carvajal, a great financier and army contractor."

In January of the previous year, the attempted arrest of the five members had set in violent motion the armed gangs of "Operatives" already mentioned, from the city. Revolutionary pamphlets were broadcasted on this occasion, as Disraeli tells us:

"Bearing the ominous insurrectionary cry of 'To your tents, O Israel'."

Shortly after this the King and the Royal Family left the Palace of Whitehall.

The five members with armed mobs and banners accompanying them, were given a triumphal return to Westminster. The stage was now set for the advent of Carvajal and his Jews and the rise of their creature Cromwell.

The scene now changes. The Civil War has taken its course. The year is 1647: Naseby has been won and lost. The King is virtually a prisoner, while treated as an honoured guest at Holmby House.

According to a letter published in Plain English (a weekly review published by the North British Publishing Co. and edited by the late Lord Alfred Douglas.) on 3rd September, 1921:

"The Learned Elders have been in existence for a much longer period than they have perhaps suspected.

My friend, Mr. L. D. van Valckert, of Amsterdam, has recently sent me a letter containing two extracts from the Synagogue at Mulheim. The volume in which they are contained was lost at some period during the Napoleonic Wars, and has recently come into Mr. van Valckert's possession.

It is written in German, and contains extracts of letters sent and received by the authorities of the Mulheim Synagogue. The first entry he sends me is of a letter received:

16th June, 1647

From O.C. (i.e. Oliver Cromwell), by Ebenezer Pratt.

In return for financial support will advocate admission of Jews to England: This however impossible while Charles living.

Charles cannot be executed without trial, adequate grounds for which do not at present exist. Therefore advise that Charles be assassinated, but will have nothing to do with arrangements for procuring an assassin, though willing to help in his escape.

In reply was dispatched the following:

12th July, 1647

To O.C. by E. Pratt.

Will grant financial aid as soon as Charles removed and Jews admitted. Assassination too dangerous. Charles shall be given opportunity to escape: His recapture will make trial and execution possible. The support will be liberal, but useless to discuss terms until trial commences."

With this information now at our disposal, the subsequent moves on the part of the regicides stand out with a new clearness. On 4th June, 1647, Cornet Joyce, acting on secret orders from Cromwell himself, and, according to Disraeli, unknown even to General-in-Chief Fairfax, descended upon Holmby House with 500 picked revolutionary troopers, and seized the King. According to Disraeli,

"The plan was arranged on May 30th at a secret meeting held at Cromwell's house, though later Cromwell pretending that it was without his concurrence."

This move coincided with a sudden development in the army; the rise of the 'Levelers" and "Rationalists." Their doctrines were those of the French revolutionaries; in fact, what we know today as Communism. These were the regicides, who four times "purged" Parliament, till there was left finally 50 members, Communist-like themselves, known later as the Rump.

To return to the letter from Mulheim Synagogue of the 12th June, 1647, and its cunning suggestion that attempted escape should be used as a pretext for execution. Just such an event took place, on 12th November of that year. Hollis and Ludlow consider the flight as a stratagem of Cromwell's. Isaac Disraeli states:

"Contemporary historians have decided that the King from the day of his deportation from Holmby to his escape to the Isle of Wight was throughout the dupe of Cromwell."

Little more remains to be said. Cromwell had carried out the orders from the Synagogue, and now it only remained to stage the mock trial.

Maneuvering for position continued for some time. And it became apparent that the House of Commons, even in their partially "purged" condition, were in favour of coming to an agreement with the King. On 5th December, 1648, the House sat all night; and finally carried the question, "That the King's concessions were satisfactory to a settlement."

Should such agreement have been reached, of course, Cromwell would not have received the large sums of money which he was hoping to get from the Jews. He struck again. On the night of December 6th, Colonel Pryde, on his instructions, carried out the last and most famous "purge" of the House of Commons, known as "Pryde's Purge."

On 4th January, the Communist remnant of 50 members, the Rump, invested themselves with "the supreme authority."

On 9th January "a High Court of Justice" to try the King was proclaimed. Two-thirds of its members were Levelers from the Army. Algernon Sidney warned Cromwell:

"First, the King can be tried by no court. Second, no man can be tried by this court."

So writes Hugh Ross Williamson in his Charles and Cromwell; and he adds a finishing touch to the effect that

"no English lawyer could be found to draw up the charge, which was eventually entrusted to an accommodating alien, Isaac Dorislaus."

Needless to say, Isaac Dorislaus was exactly the same sort of alien as Carvajal and Manasseh Ben Israel and the other financiers who paid the "Protector" his blood money.

The Jews were once again permitted to land freely in England in spite of strong protests by the sub-committee of the Council of State, which declared that they would be a grave menace to the State and the Christian religion. Perhaps it is due to their protests that the actual act of banishment has never to this day been repealed.

"The English Revolution under Charles I was unlike any preceding one ...

From that time and event we contemplate in our history the phases of revolution." Isaac Disraeli

There were many more to follow on similar lines, notably in France.

In 1897 a further important clue to these mysterious happenings fell into Gentile hands in the shape of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. In that document we read this remarkable sentence:

"Remember the French Revolution, the secrets of its preparation are well known to us for it was entirely the work of our hands."[Protocol No.3]

The Elders might have made the passage even fuller, and written,

"Remember the British and French revolutions, the secrets of which are well known to us for they were entirely the work of our hands."

The difficult problem of the subjugation of both Kingdoms was still however unsolved. Scotland was Royalist before everything else; and she had proclaimed Charles II King. Cromwell's armies marched round Scotland, aided by their Geneva sympathizers, dispensing Judaic barbarity; but Scotland still called Charles II King. He moreover accepted the Presbyterian form of Christianity for Scotland; and slowly but steadily the feeling in England began to come round to the Scottish point of view.

Finally upon the death of Cromwell, all Britain welcomed the King's restoration to the throne of England.

In 1660 Charles II returned; but there was an important difference between the Kingdom he had fled from as a boy, and the one to which he returned as King. The enemies of Kingship were entrenched within his kingdom now, and as soon as the stage should be set for renewing the propaganda against the papacy and so, dividing once more persons, all of whom considered themselves as part of Christ's Church, the next attack would develop.

The next attack would aim at placing the control of the finances of both Kingdoms in the hands of the Jews, who were now firmly ensconced within.

Charles evidently had no consciousness of the Jewish problem or plans, or the menace they held for his peoples. The wisdom and experience of Edward I had become lost in the centuries of segregation from the Jewish virus. A consciousness of the danger to the Crown in placing his enemies in possession of the weapon of a "Popish Plot" cry he did retain.

With James II's accession, the crisis could not be long delayed. The most unscrupulous pamphleteering and propaganda was soon in full swing against him, and it is no surprise to find that many of the vilest pamphlets were actually printed in Holland. This country was now quite openly the focus for all disaffected persons; and considerable comings and goings took place during these years.

Stories were brought to the King that his own brother-in-law had joined those who plotted against him; but he utterly refused to credit them, or take any action till news came that the expedition against himself was actually under way.

The chief figure amongst those who deserted James at that crucial juncture was John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough. It is interesting to read in the Jewish Encyclopedia that this Duke for many years received not less than 6,000 pounds a year from the Dutch Jew Solomon Medina.

The real objective of the "Glorious Revolution" was achieved a few years later in 1694, when the Royal consent was given for the setting up of the "Bank of England" and the institution of the National Debt.

This charter handed over to an anonymous committee the Royal prerogative of minting money; converted the basis of wealth to gold; and enabled the international money lenders to secure their loans on the taxes of the country, instead of the doubtful undertaking of some ruler or potentate which was all the security they could previously obtain.

From that time economic machinery was set in motion which ultimately reduced all wealth to the fictitious terms of gold which the Jews control; and drained away the life blood of the land, the real wealth which was the birthright of the British peoples.

[Note: Germany's most successful economic system was NOT backed by gold. He eluded the blood-sucking grip of the Zionist Jew Money Masters, therefore "Germany must be destroyed!" and Adolf Hitler vilified down through ages so the uninformed will DEMAND their government return to the gold standard. -- jackie]

The political and economic union of England and Scotland was shortly afterwards forced upon Scotland with wholesale corruption, and in defiance of formal protests from every county and borough. The main objects of the Union were to suppress the Royal Mint in Scotland, and to force upon her, too, responsibility for the "National Debt."

The grip of the moneylender was now complete throughout Britain. The danger was that the members of the new joint Parliament would sooner or later, in the spirit of their ancestors, challenge this state of affairs. To provide against this, therefore, the party system was now brought into being, frustrating true national reaction and enabling the wire-pullers to divide and rule; using their newly-established financial power to ensure that their own men and their own policies should secure the limelight, and sufficient support from their newspapers, pamphlets, and banking accounts to carry the day.

Gold was soon to become the basis of loans, ten times the size of the amount deposited. In other words, 100 pounds in gold would be legal security for 1,000 pounds of loan; at 3% therefore 100 pounds in gold could earn 30 pounds interest annually with no more trouble to the lender than the keeping of a few ledger entries.

The owner of 100 pounds of land, however, still must work every hour of daylight in order to make perhaps 4%. The end of the process must only be a matter of time. The moneylenders must become millionaires; those who own and work the land, the Englishman and the Scotsman, must be ruined. The process has continued inexorably till now, when it is nearly completed.

It has been hypocritically camouflaged by clever propaganda as helping the poor by mulcting the rich. It has been in reality nothing of the kind. It has been in the main the deliberate ruination of the landed classes, the leaders among the Gentiles, and their supplanting by the Jew financiers and their hangers-on.

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Alexander
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 17, 2009 7:21 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

This pamphlet, on Cromwell and the Jews, was published in 1940 and re-published by the Lyndon Larouche organisation - How Jewry Turned England Into A Plutocratic State...
http://lyndonlarouchewatch.org/larouche-british-code.PDF

More information on Jewish involvement in the English Revolution(and the French and Russian Revolutions) to be found in Douglas Reed's Controversy of Zion....
http://www.controversyofzion.info/Controversybook/index.htm



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PostPosted: Sun Dec 31, 2017 12:19 pm    Post subject: Oliver Cromwell - regicide cult, Zionism + Masonry origins? Reply with quote

see also
Oliver Cromwell - tool of Masonic revolution and control?
http://www.911forum.org.uk/board/viewtopic.php?t=16553

Did Oliver Cromwell found Freemasonry?
THE CROMWELL THEORY
http://theinfounderground.com/smf/index.php?topic=14644.0

download pdf here
http://www.bilderberg.org/macons.pdf

https://facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=2565368283687291&substory_in dex=94&id=100000096347848

This 1658 engraving by William Faithorne the Elder (1616-1691), unofficially called “Cromwell Between Two Pillars”, could possibly have inspired the claim that Freemasonry was established by Oliver Cromwell
http://priory-of-sion.com/biblios/links/larudan.html



The lady dost protest too much methinks - TG

In 1746, the Abbe Larudan, a foe of Freemasonry, published his Les Franc-Macons Ecrasses, apparently the child of the author's imagination, in which he asserted that Cromwell, in 1648, at a dinner attended by Parliamentarians, Presbyterians, and Independents, first indicated his intentions to form such a society. The development of this scheme was related by the Abbe with particularity and in detail. Cromwell, he tells us, held his confidants in suspense for four days, after which, he consummated the enterprise in dramatic fashion. Conducting his guests into a dark room, he prepared their minds for what was to follow by a long prayer in which he pretended to be in communion with the spirits of the blessed. After this, he explained his purpose to found a society to encourage the worship of God and to restore peace. Informing the company that they must all pass through a certain ceremony, and, gaining their consent, he appointed a Master, two Wardens, a Secretary, and an Orator. The visitors were then removed to another room in which was a picture of the ruins of Solomon's Temple. They were next blindfolded, removed to another apartment and invested with the secrets, after which, Cromwell delivered a discourse on religion and politics, so impressing the novices that all sects united with Cromwell's army in forming a secret association to promote the principles of the love of God and liberty and equality among men, but the real objective of which was the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the Commonwealth.

The Temple of Solomon, said the Abbe, was used as the symbol of glory or the primitive state of man, which, after some years, was destroyed by an army representing pride and ambition, the people being led away captive. Finally, the Freemasons were privileged to rebuild the Temple. The Order was divided into three degrees, the Master's degree having a Hiramic legend differing somewhat from that later adopted. The death of Hiram represented the loss of liberty, and the confusion among the workmen represented the state of the people who were reduced to slavery by the tyrants. Cromwell is then said to have spread the Society over England, Scotland, and Ireland, the members being first called Freemasons, then Levelers, then Independents, next Fifth Monarchy Men, and, finally Freemasons.

The Abbe Larudan, like other fabricators, fell into the trap of his own ignorance. He did not know that Elias Ashmole had been made a Mason two years before Cromwell's supposed theatrical performance, or that lodges had existed in most of the principal cities of Scotland before Cromwell was born, or that the Master's degree was unheard of, and the Hiramic Legend, too, until sixty-five years after Cromwell's death. The Abbe's absurd story appears to have been composed by paraphrasing Edward Ludlow's Memoirs in which he described Cromwell's intrigues for the organization of a new political party, but in which nothing was said about Freemasonry.



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TonyGosling
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PostPosted: Fri Jan 12, 2018 11:56 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

In February, 1649, he published England's New Chains Discovered. "He appealed to the army and the provinces as well as Londoners to join him in rejecting the rule of the military junta, the council of state, and their ‘puppet’ parliament. Leveller agitation, inspired by his example, revived. He was soon in the Tower again for the suspected authorship of a book which parliament had declared treasonable". (53)

In another pamphlet Lilburne described Cromwell as the "new King." On 24th March, Lilburne read his latest pamphlet, out loud to a crowd outside Winchester House, where he was living at the time, and then presented it to the House of Commons later that same day. It was condemned as "false, scandalous, and reproachful" as well as "highly seditious" and on 28th March he was arrested at his home. (54)

Richard Overton, William Walwyn and Thomas Prince, were also taken into custody and all were brought before the Council of State in the afternoon. Lilburne later claimed that while he was being held prisoner in an adjacent room, he heard Cromwell thumping his fist upon the Council table and shouting that the only "way to deal with these men is to break them in pieces … if you do not break them, they will break you!" (55)

In March, 1649, Lilburne, Overton and Prince, published, England's New Chains Discovered. They attacked the government of Oliver Cromwell pointed out that: "They may talk of freedom, but what freedom indeed is there so long as they stop the Press, which is indeed and hath been so accounted in all free Nations, the most essential part thereof.. What freedom is there left, when honest and worthy Soldiers are sentenced and enforced to ride the horse with their faces reverst, and their swords broken over their heads for but petitioning and presenting a letter in justification of their liberty therein?" (56)

http://spartacus-educational.com/STUlilburne.htm



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Oliver Cromwell in ''A GENEALOGIE OF ANTI-CHRIST''
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PostPosted: Sun Jan 14, 2018 1:27 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Council Of State
which ruled after the execution of Charles I


The Council Of State 1649

Earl of Denbigh,
Earl of Mulgrave,
Earl of Pembroke,
Earl of Salisbury;
Lord Grey of Groby, X
Lord Fairfax,

Sir William Armine,
Denis Bond,
John Bradshaw, X
Sir William Constable, X
Oliver Cromwell, X
Sir John Danvers, X
Sir James Harington, /
William Heveningham, /
Sir Arthur Haselrig,
Colonel John Hutchinson, X
Sir John Lisle, /
Edmund Ludlow, X
John Jones Maesygarnedd, X
Henry Marten, X
Sir William Masham,
Sir Henry Mildmay, /
Isaac Pennington, /
Sir Gilbert Pickering, /
Alexander Popham,
William Purefoy, X
Sir Henry Rolle,
Thomas Scot, X
Major-General Philip Skippon,
Sir Oliver St John,
Sir Philip Stapleton,
Sir Henry Vane the Younger,
Robert Wallop, /
Valentine Walton, X
Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke,
John Wilde,
Lieutenant-Colonel Rowland Wilson,

X regicide
/ refused to sign Charles I death warrant

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www.mp911truth.org
www.ae911truth.org
www.rl911truth.org
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www.v911t.org
www.thisweek.org.uk
www.abolishwar.org.uk
www.elementary.org.uk
www.radio4all.net/index.php/contributor/2149
http://utangente.free.fr/2003/media2003.pdf
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 27, 2018 2:07 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Scribe Nehemiah Most Excellent there is a report.
https://www.bilderberg.org/Royal_Arch.htm

Most Excellent Zerubbabel Companion Scribe Nehemiah see who seeks admission.

Scribe Nehemiah (Opens the door and addresses the Janitor) Whom have you there?

Janitor. Three Master Masons from Babylon having heard that you are about to rebuild the Temple to the honour and glory of the Most High are anxious to sojourn amongst you and assist in that great and glorious undertaking.

Scribe Nehemiah Wait, while I report to the Most Excellent (Closes the door, and returns to the point of address).

Scribe Nehemiah. Most Excellent three Master Masons from Babylon having heard that you are about to rebuild the Temple to the honour and glory of the Most High are anxious to sojourn amongst you and assist in that great and glorious undertaking.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel Admit them.

The Sojourners and Candidate are admitted and take up position in the West, Principal Sojourner in the centre with the Candidate at his right and 1st Assistant Sojourner on his left.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel Strangers, whence come you?

Principal Sojourner. From Babylon Most Excellent

Most Excellent Zerubbabel What is your request?

Principal Sojourner Having heard that you are about to rebuild the Temple to the honour and glory of the Most High, we are anxious to sojourn amongst you and assist in that great and glorious undertaking.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel As no strangers can be permitted to assist in that holy work, we must first enquire who you are.

Principal Sojourner. Brethren of your own tribes and families Most Excellent

Most Excellent Zerubbabel But are you not descended from those who fled when the City and Holy Temple were sorely oppressed, or are you of those left behind by the Babylonish General for the purpose of tilling the land?

Principal Sojourner. We would scorn to be descended from those who basely fled when the City and Holy Temple were sorely oppressed; neither are we of those left behind by the Babylonish General for the purpose of tilling the land; but we are nobly born, and like yourselves descended from a race of Patriarchs and Kings. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were our forefathers. Most Excellent we are of the royal line of David and princely tribe of Judah, who, for their sins and those of the people were led into captivity with Jehoiakin their King, by Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon, there to remain for seventy years as was foretold by the prophet Jeremiah. The period of our captivity expired in the first year of the reign of Cyrus, King of Persia, when it pleased the Almighty to inspire that noble prince to issue the following proclamation: "Thus saith Cyrus, King of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath the Lord God of Heaven given me; and he hath charged me to build him an house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Who is there among you of all His people? The Lord his God be with him and let him go up". We eagerly availed ourselves of this opportunity of returning to our native land, and have come up accordingly to sojourn amongst you and offer our assistance in rebuilding the Temple to the honour and glory of the Most High who hath promised by the mouth of His Holy Prophet, there to establish His Name for ever and give peace to the whole earth.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel We acknowledge your noble ancestry and cheerfully admit you members of our tribes and families. It only remains to enquire on what part of the holy work you wish to be employed?

Principal Sojourner Any position to which your Excellencies may be pleased to appoint us will be deemed an honour conferred.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel Humility and docility are sure indications of merit, but, from the lateness of your application, the principal offices are already filled. We will, however, engage you to prepare the ground for the foundation of the Second Temple on the site where the first Temple formerly stood; for which purpose you will be provided with proper working implements; but we lay this strict injunction upon you, that should you, during the progress of your labours make any discovery you deem of importance, you will communicate it to none but the Grand Sanhedrim now sitting.

Scribe Nehemiah and Scribe Ezra hand the crowbar, pickaxe, shovel, scroll and lifelines as follows: crowbar, scroll and lifelines to the ps., pickaxe to the Candidate, shovel to 1st Assistant Sojourner Scribe Nehemiah goes to the door to be ready for them to leave.

Principal Sojourner We humbly thank your Excellencies for the trust reposed in us and pledge ourselves to a faithful discharge of the duties thereof.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel Go - (at that point he lifts his right hand with 1st and 2nd fingers upright and together, thumb across palm to close the other two fingers, in the form of a Patriarchal blessing) - and may the God of your Fathers be with you. (Sojourners and Candidate retire). Janitor assists to fix the lifelines, then gives four knocks.

Scribe Nehemiah Most Excellent, there is a report.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel Companion Scribe Nehemiah see who seeks admission.

Scribe Nehemiah (To Janitor) Whom have you there?

Janitor. The three Sojourners who were sent to prepare the ground for the foundation of the Second Temple, having made a discovery they deem of importance, are anxious to communicate the same to the Grand Sanhedrim now sitting.

Scribe Nehemiah Wait while I report to the Most Excellent (Closes the door) Goes to the point of address. Most Excellent, the three Sojourners who were sent to prepare the ground for the foundation of the Second Temple, having made a discovery they deem of importance are anxious to communicate the same to your Excellencies.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel Admit them.

The Sojourners and Candidate are admitted and take up positions in the West near the Kneeling Stool, Principal Sojourner in the centre carrying crowbar and Scroll, 1st Assistant Sojourner on his left carrying shovel and holding the end of one of the smaller cords, the Candidate on the right of the Principal Sojourner carrying the pickaxe and holding the end of the other small cord.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel Brethren we understand you have made a discovery you deem of importance. You will therefore communicate the discovery you have made and the circumstances which led thereto.

Principal Sojourner Resuming our labours early this morning we discovered a pair of pillars of exquisite design and workmanship; proceeding onwards we found six other pairs of equal symmetry and beauty which, from their position, appeared to have supported the roof of a subterranean passage or gallery leading to where the Most Holy Place formerly stood. Our progress was here impeded by the fragments which had fallen during the conflagration of the former Temple. These we cleared away and arrived at what appeared to be solid rock. Accidentally striking it with my crow (strikes the floor) I remarked a hollow sound, I therefore hailed my Companions when the one with the pick loosened the ground, which the other with the shovel cleared away (both go through the motions); when that which at first appeared to be solid rock proved to be a compact piece of masonry wrought in the form of a dome. Aware of who had been the Architect of the former Temple, and that no part thereof had been constructed in vain, we determined to examine it further, for which purpose we wrenched forth two of the arch stones, when a vault of considerable magnitude appeared to view. All being anxious to descend, we cast lots. The lot Most Excellent was mine. My Companions then tied this strong cord or lifeline round my body by which to lower me into the vault, but being apprehensive of dying from damp, noxious vapours or other unforeseen causes, I took a smaller cord in each hand by which to give preconcerted signals should I require more liberty or wish to be drawn up. I was then duly lowered into the vault. On arriving at the bottom I felt something like the base or pedestal of a column, with certain characters engraven thereon, but for the want of light was unable to decipher their meaning. I signalled with my left hand for more liberty and on exploring the vault found this scroll of vellum or parchment, but from the same cause was unable to read its contents. I then signalled with my right hand and my Companions drew me up bringing the scroll with me. On arriving at the light of day we found from the first words thereon recorded that it was part of the long lost Sacred Law promulgated by Moses at the foot of Mount Horeb in the wilderness of Sinai. The possession of this precious treasure stimulated us to further exertions; we therefore enlarged the aperture by removing the keystone and I descended as before. The sun by this time had gained its greatest altitude and darted its rays with meridian splendour into the vault, enabling me clearly to distinguish those objects I had before so imperfectly discovered. In the centre of the vault stood a block of white marble wrought in the form of the Altar of Incense a double cube. On the front were engraven the initials of the three Grand Masters who presided at the building of the former Temple namely, Solomon King of Israel, Hiram King of Tyre, and Hiram Abiff with certain mystic characters, and a veil covered the top. Approaching with reverential awe I raised the veil and there beheld, on a plate of gold, that which I humbly conceived to be the Sacred and Mysterious Name of the True and Living God Most High I carefully re-veiled it with all respect and reverence, gave the agreed-on signal, and was again drawn up. With the assistance of my Companions I closed the aperture, and we have hastened hither to communicate to your Excellencies the discovery we have made and the circumstances which led thereto.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel Your narrative bears every appearance of truth, but to convince us you must state what you saw on that plate of gold.

Principal Sojourner That Most Excellent we must humbly beg to decline; for we have heard with our ears and our fathers have declared unto us that in their day, and the old time before, it was not lawful for anyone to pronounce the Sacred and Mysterious Name of the True and Living God Most High save the High Priest, nor him but once a year when he entered the Holy of Holies and stood before the Ark of the Covenant to make propitiation for the sins of the people.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel We admire your pious caution, and your conduct considerably increases our esteem. We will, however, depute two of our Companions, Ezra and Nehemiah. to accompany you to the spot and their report shall determine your reward.

Principal Sojourner hands the Scroll and crowbar to 1st Assistant Sojourner who takes charge of the Candidate and prevents him from looking round to watch proceedings. Principal Sojourner and the two Scribes retire to the extreme West corner of the Chapter where the Principal Sojourner says in a whisper, Stand to Order thus. (All three stand with the Reverential or Hailing sign and quietly they share the Name three times, commencing with Principal Sojourner then with Nehemiah lastly with Ezra. He then returns to his position between the Candidate and Assistant Sojourner who restores the Scroll and crowbar to him. Scribes Ezra and Nehemiah go to nearest ensign, Nehemiah in the south and Ezra in the north and make their advance by three steps, commencing with the left foot, halt and bow, no sign, two more commencing with the right foot, halt and bow, two more commencing with the right foot halt and bow. The feet are brought together each time they halt. They remove the veil, verify that the Name is exhibited and then address Most Excellent Zerubbabel. (no sign)

Scribe Ezra. Right Most Excellent in every particular.

Scribe Nehemiah Right Most Excellent in every particular.

They both step backwards to stand in line with the Candidate, Principal Sojourner and Asst. Sojourner: Most Excellent Zerubbabel consults the other two Principals.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel My colleagues in office concur with me in opinion that, as a reward for your zeal and fidelity in having discovered the long lost secrets of the Royal Arch you should at once be called to that exalted rank so long held by your illustrious ancestors. Companions Ezra and Nehemiah divest those worthy Masons of the implements of labour, clothe them with the robes of innocence and instruct them to advance hither that they may be further rewarded.

The Scribes take the Working Tools and replace them on the floor of the vault in the form of a triangle apex to the east, crowbar at the base, shovel on the left and pick on the right. Lifelines on the left and Scroll on the right. The Candidate is clothed in a white surplice and Master Mason apron is removed. The Sojourners remove their Master Mason aprons, put on Royal Arch clothing white surplice, collar of office over it. The Director of Ceremonies and Assistant Director of Ceremonies should assist the Scribes in this operation.

Scribe Ezra. You will advance by seven steps, halting and bowing at the third, fifth and seventh. Follow and copy me. (He demonstrates - no sign - then resumes his seat).

Assistant Sojourner resumes his seat. Principal Sojourner restrains the Candidate whilst the advance is being demonstrated but on conclusion passes the Candidate in front of him to go to the starting position and prompts the Candidate regarding that progress. On arrival in the East he places the Candidate at right angles to Haggai, facing south, and stands on his right. Most Excellent Zerubbabel passes his Sceptre to Joshua and steps down to face the Candidate

Most Excellent Zerubbabel The robes with which you have been invested are emblems of that purity of heart and rectitude of conduct which should at all times actuate those exalted into this Supreme Degree. We reward you with this Jewel (pins it on the surplice) as a mark of our entire approbation, and admit you Companions amongst us; we decorate you with this ribbon - (sash is put on) – and Badge - (Apron is put on, underneath the sash) - the insignia of our Order; and entrust you with this Staff of Office (the ensign of Judah is given into the right hand of the Candidate) which you will ever have a right to bear unless 72 of the Elders are present; and hereby constitute you Princes and Rulers in the Order, and should you continue to act in the faithful discharge of your duties, you will by a regular gradation be entitled to a full participation of our secrets. It is in this part of the ceremony that the manner of sharing the Sacred Name is communicated. The Sojourners found this Name inscribed on a plate of gold in the vault, and rightly conceived it to be the Sacred and Mysterious Name of the True and Living God Most High because in olden times it was not lawful for anyone save the High Priest to pronounce the Name, it is our custom to divide it into three syllables, each syllable to be spoken by a different Companion, thus forming a token of recognition. Excellent Companion Haggai will you assist?

Haggai Rises places Sceptre on his seat, turns to face West and is then already in position.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel Stand to order thus. (The two Principals and Candidate show the Reverential or Hailing sign, the Candidate receiving whispered instructions)

It is given in a series of triangles, first with the right foot, second with the right knee, third right hand on right elbow, and fourth left hand grasping left wrist. The Name. . . . JAHBULON is given in a series of syllables. I will commence and you will follow (Principal Sojourner should prompt as necessary).

On completion Most Excellent Zerubbabel and Haggai resume their seats, Most Excellent Zerubbabel receives his Sceptre from Joshua, Principal Sojourner conducts the Candidate to the west, Assistant Sojourner rises and they stand in line Principal Sojourner taking centre position with Candidate on his right and Assistant Sojourner on his left. Principal Sojourner gives Reverential or Hailing sign to the Name, but drops it before speaking to Most Excellent Zerubbabel..

Principal Sojourner Thus invested, rewarded, decorated and entrusted by your Excellencies, it shall ever be our study to merit a continuance of your approbation by faithfully and assiduously discharging the duties of the high vocation to which you have this day been pleased to call us.

Most Excellent Zerubbabel We congratulate you on being exalted into Royal Arch Masonry, at once the foundation and keystone of the whole Masonic structure. You may perhaps imagine that you have this day taken a fourth Degree in Freemasonry, such, however, is not the case. It is the Master Mason's completed, for when you were raised to the Third Degree you were informed that by the untimely death of our Master Hiram Abiff the secrets of a Master Mason were lost, and that certain substituted secrets were adopted to distinguish all Master Masons until time or circumstances should restore the genuine.

These secrets were lost for a period of nearly 500 years, and were regained in the manner which has just been described to you, somewhat in a dramatic form the more forcibly to impress on your minds the Providential means by which those ancient secrets were regained.

We have now arrived at that part of the ceremony when Excellent Companion Joshua will give the Historical Lecture, Excellent Companion Haggai in the Symbolical, after which I will explain the Mystical portion of this Supreme Degree. Companions be seated.

(The Sojurners and Candidate resume their seats, Candidate in the centre.)


THE HISTORICAL OR THIRD PRINCIPAL'S LECTURE
Most Excellent Zerubbabel (Knocks). Companions, I claim your attention to Excellent Companion Joshua for the Historical Lecture (Knocks).

Joshua rises, steps down to floor court bow to Most Excellent Zerubbabel then addresses Candidate.

Companions, there are three epochs in the history of Freemasonry which particularly merit your attention, namely, the openings of the First or Holy Lodge, the Second or Sacred Lodge and the Third or Grand and Royal Lodge.

The First or Holy Lodge was opened Anno Lucis 2515, two years after the Exodus of the Children of Israel from their Egyptian bondage, by Moses, Aholiab and Bezaleel, on consecrated ground at the foot of Mount Horeb in the wilderness of Sinai, where the Children of Israel pitched their tents, and gathered themselves together to offer up praises and thanksgivings to the Most High for their signal deliverance from the hands of the Egyptians. There, but before that time, the Almighty was pleased to reveal himself to His faithful servant Moses, and commissioned him His High Ambassador, of wrath to Pharaoh and his people, but of freedom and salvation to the House of Jacob. There were delivered those mysterious forms and prototypes, the Tabernacle, the Ark of the Covenant, and the Tables of the Sacred Law engraven by the finger of the Most High with sublime and comprehensive precepts of moral and religious duty. There also were dictated by His unerring wisdom; those peculiar forms of civil and religious polity, which, by separating His once favoured people from all other nations, consecrated Israel a chosen vessel to His service. For these reasons this was designated the First or Holy Lodge.

Solomon King of Israel, Hiram King of Tyre and Hiram Abiff presided over the Second or Sacred Lodge, which was opened Anno Lucis 2992, in the bosom of the Holy Mount Moriah, on the very centre of the ground where the Sanctum Sanctorum of the Sanhedrim was afterwards erected. On that consecrated spot Abraham proved his intuitive faith by not refusing to offer up his beloved son Isaac, a destined victim on the Altar of his God, when it pleased the Almighty to substitute a more agreeable sacrifice. There on the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite, David offered up the mediatorial sacrifice by which the plague was stayed; and there, in a vision, were revealed to him the plans of that magnificent Temple after wards erected by his illustrious son, of whom God said, "He shall build an house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom for ever." For these reasons this was denominated the Second or Sacred Lodge.

The Third or Grand and Royal Lodge was holden at Jerusalem, and opened Anno Lucis 3469, shortly after the return of the Children of Israel from their Babylonish captivity, by Zerubbabel, Prince of the people; Haggai the prophet; and Joshua, the son of Josedech the High Priest. Then it was that the kingly power was restored, in the person of Zerubbabel, to the royal line of David and princely tribe of Judah. Nor was all vestige thereof effaced until after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans under Titus in the 70th year of the present era. Therefore to commemorate the restoration, this was called the. Third or Grand and Royal Lodge; and we have in the present Chapter a resemblance of those Grand Originals. In every regular well-formed and properly constituted Royal Arch Chapter, we acknowledge the representation of the Grand and Holy Royal Arch Chapter of Jerusalem. The three Principals represent (Points to each in turn with his Sceptre) Zerubbabel, Haggai, and Joshua, whose names they bear. The two Scribes (Points to each) represent Ezra and Nehemiah, lectors and expounders of the Sacred Law and attendants on the Grand Sanhedrim.

Yourselves (Points) represent the Sojourners, who, for their zeal and fidelity in having discovered the long-lost secrets of the Royal Arch, were rewarded with seats among the princes "and rulers of the people, represented (points) by the rest of the companions.

Gives a court bow to Most Excellent Zerubbabel and resumes his seat.


THE SYMBOLICAL OR SECOND PRINCIPAL'S LECTURE

Before Most Excellent Zerrubbabel calls upon Excellent Companion Haggai (or Past 2nd Principal or P.z.) to give the Symbolical Lecture the Director of Ceremonies should remove the kneeling stool in the west in order that Candidate may have a better view.

Most Excellent Zerrubbabel (Knocks) Companions. I claim your attention to Excellent Companion Haggai for the Symbolical Lecture (Knocks).

Haggai Rises, steps down to the floor and gives a court bow to Most Excellent Zerrubbabel

Companions, the forms, symbols and ornaments of Royal Arch Masonry, together with the rites and ceremonies at present in practice amongst us, were adopted by our predecessors at the building of the Second Temple, as well to preserve in our minds the Providential means by which those ancient secrets were regained as to impress on our hearts those exalted lessons of morality which we as members of this Supreme Degree are bound to practice.

The form of a Royal Arch Chapter, when properly arranged, approaches as nearly as circumstances will permit that of a Catenarian Arch. Thus we preserve a memorial of the vaulted Shrine in which the Sacred Name was deposited; whilst from the impenetrable nature of this, the strongest of all architectural forms, we learn the necessity of guarding our mysteries from profanation by the most inviolable secrecy. It also strongly typifies that invariable adherence to social order and spirit of fraternal union which has given energy and permanency to the whole constitution of Freemasonry, thereby enabling it to survive the wreck of mighty empires, and resist the destroying hand of time; and as the subordinate members of the Catenarian Arch naturally gravitate towards the centre or keystone, which compresses and binds the whole structure together, so are we taught to look up with reverence and submit with cheerfulness to every lawfully constituted authority, whether it be of Civil or Masonic regulation.

The Keystone of the Arch is represented by the Three Principals of the Chapter. For as the secrets of the Royal Arch were regained by wrenching forth the keystone thereof, so a perfect knowledge of this Supreme Degree can no otherwise be obtained than by passing those several Chairs.

(Points. Steps forward to North side of the Pedestal).

In Royal Arch Masonry we acknowledge six lights, three lesser (points to them with Sceptre) and three greater (points). The three lesser represent the light of the Law and the Prophets, and by their number allude to the Patriarchal, Mosaical, and Prophetical dispensations. The three greater represent the Sacred Name itself, and are emblematical of the creative, preservative and annihilative powers of the Deity.

These lights are arranged in the form of an equilateral triangle, each of the lesser bisecting a line formed by two of the greater, thus geometrically dividing the greater triangle into three lesser triangles at its extremities, and forming a fourth in the centre, all equal and equilateral.

(Walks to the East and points to this device on the central banner)

This symbolical arrangement corresponds with the mysterious triple tau, which has two right angles at each of its exterior lines, and two in the centre; in all, eight right angles, corresponding in number with those contained in the four triangles; for the three angles of every triangle are together equal to two right angles. (walks to the West). It also serves to illustrate the jewel worn by the Companions (Draws attention to the Jewel) which forms by its intersections a given number of angles: these may be taken in five several combinations, and when reduced to their amount in right angles, will be found equal to the five regular Platonic bodies (points) representing the four elements and the sphere of the universe.

The ribbon worn by the Companions. (Draws attention to it) is a sacred emblem denoting light, being composed of two of the principal colours with which the veils of the Temple and Tabernacle were interwoven. The sacredness of the emblem is further signified by its irradiated form, which has ever been considered an emblem of regal dignity and power.

The Ensigns on the staves borne by the Companions are the distinctive bearings of the twelve tribes of Israel, and are figurative of a peculiar blessing bequeathed to each by the Patriarch Jacob, who, shortly before his death, assembled them together for that purpose, as we find recorded in the 49th Chapter of the Book of Genesis; the tribes are further pointed out in the 2nd Chapter of the Book of Numbers. (Walks to the East).

The four principal banners represent the leading standards of the four divisions of the army of Israel, which bore devices of (points) a Man, a Lion, an Ox and an Eagle. A Man to personify intelligence and understanding; a Lion to represent strength and power; an Ox to denote the ministration of patience and assiduity; and an Eagle to indicate the promptness and celerity with which the will and pleasure of the Great I AM are ever executed.

The bearings on the Sceptres (The Principals hold them up to view) denote (points to each in turn) the regal, prophetical, and sacerdotal offices, all of which ever were and still ought to be conferred in a peculiar manner accompanied by the communication of particular secrets. The Bible Square and Compasses (points to them) are the appropriate emblems of the three Grand Masters who presided at the building of the former Temple. The Bible. denotes the wisdom of King Solomon the Square the strength of King Hiram and the Compasses the exquisite skill of Hiram Abiff but the truly speculative Mason ever regards them as the unerring standards of the Wisdom, Truth and Justice of the M.H. His Wisdom is amply exemplified in the Volume of the Sacred Law which contains the record of His mighty acts and is the register of His revealed will. His Truth is justly "presented by the Square, that being the acknowledged symbol of strength and criterion of perfection, whilst His unerring and impartial Justice, in having defined for our instruction the limits of good and evil, assigning to each his due proportion of pleasure and pain, is elucidated by the Compasses by which instrument we are enabled to measure and ascertain the limits of all geometrical figures and deduce our ideas of their proportion, and equality to a given standard.

The Sword and Trowel (points to them) were adopted by Royal Arch Masons to commemorate the valour of those worthy men who assisted at the building of the Second Temple, who, with Trowel in hand and Sword by their side were ever ready to defend the City and Holy Sanctuary against the unprovoked attacks of their enemies, thereby leaving an impressive lesson to future ages; that, next to implicit obedience to all lawfully constituted authority, a manly and determined resistance to lawless violence is the first of social duties.

The Pick, Crowbar and Shovel. (Points to them) were the implements made use of by the Sojourners who were sent to prepare the ground for the foundation of the Second Temple, the Pick to loosen the ground, the Crowbar to take purchases and the Shovel to clear away the rubbish and loose earth. These we symbolise.

The stroke of the Pick reminds us of the sound of the last trumpet, when the ground shall be shaken, loosened, and the graves deliver and give up their dead; the Crowbar being an emblem of uprightness, points to the erect manner in which the body shall arise on that awful day to meet its tremendous though merciful Judge; while the manner in which the body is laid in the grave is fully depicted by the work of the Shovel and we, with humble but holy confidence, hope that when these earthly remains have been properly disposed of, the spirit will arise to immortal life and everlasting bliss.



THE MYSTICAL OR FIRST PRINCIPAL'S LECTURE

The Mystical Lecture is in two Parts, each Part is to be given by Most Excellent Zerrubbabel or by a Past First Principal on his behalf: It is an essential part of Exaltation.

PART 1

Most Excellent Zerrubbabel (Knocks, remains seated)

Companions, the mystical knowledge of this Supreme Degree comprehends the forms and explanation of the signs, the nature and import of the Sacred Name, and the traditional ceremony to be observed in sharing it.

In Royal Arch Masonry we acknowledge five signs, corresponding in number with the five points of fellowship in which the Master Mason has already been instructed; and as these point out the relative duties we owe to each other, so do the former mark in a peculiar manner the relation we bear to the Most High, as creatures offending against His mighty will and power, yet still the adopted children of His mercy. I will now go through the signs, and you, my newly-exalted Companion, will rise and copy me. (Passes Sceptre to J. Steps down to floor and addresses the Candidate who, with the Sojourners, stands up). This is the Penal Sign - (shows the sign and Candidate copies, Principal Sojourner should prompt for correct hand to be used) - the only perfect sign in Freemasonry given with the left hand. This is the Reverential or Hailing Sign. (shows the sign in two parts, left hand first and then the right, discharging both together) and is to be used when entering or retiring from the Chapter, always to the Name, then discharged, and before addressing the Principals. This is the

Penitential or Supplicatory Sign, (Most Excellent Zerrabbubel goes to the kneeling stool, Candidate is taken to the one in the west for this sign) on bended knees and with uplifted hands; this the Monitorial sign, hands girding the loins, thumbs to the front; and this the Fiducial. You will now resume your seats, and I will explain them at length. (Candidate and Sojourners resume seats, Candidate in centre).

The Penal Sign (Shows sign) alludes to the fall of Adam, and the dreadful penalty entailed thereby on his sinful posterity, no less than death. It intimates by the very act that the stiff-necked and disobedient shall be cut off from the land of the living by the judgement of God, even as, in ancient times, the head was severed from the body by the sword of human justice. We are taught by the Reverential or Hailing Sign to bend (shows first part) with humility and resignation beneath the chastening hand of the Almighty, at the same time to engraft His laws on our hearts. (Completes sign).

In this expressive form did the father of the human race present himself before the Most High to receive the enunciation of his just, though terrible doom; (discards sign) and this sign was afterwards adopted by Moses who, when the Lord appeared to him in the burning bush at the foot of Mount Horeb in the Wilderness of Sinai, thus shaded his eyes from the brightness of the Divine Presence, (does it) and placed his hand on his heart in token of obedience; (does it) and this sign was afterwards accounted unto him for righteousness. (discards sign).

The Reverential or Hailing sign may justly be deemed the parent of the Penitential or Supplicatory sign since it so truly denotes that frame of heart and mind with out which our prayers, and oblations of praise, cannot find acceptance at the Throne of Grace; before which, how should a frail and erring creature of the dust present himself but on bended knees (kneels on stool)

and with uplifted hands (places hands together in attitude of prayer) at once betokening his humility and contrition. Thus did Adam kneel to God and bless the Author of his being; thus too did he bend with contrite awe before the face of his offended Judge, to avert His wrath and conciliate His mercy, and has transmitted this outward form of humility and contrition to his sinful posterity for ever.

The Monitorial sign reminds us of the weakness of human nature, unable to resist the powers of darkness unless assisted by that light (here points to Volume of the Sacred Law) which is from above. By this defenceless posture (shows sign) we acknowledge our whole frailty, and confess that we can do no manner of good or acceptable service but through Him, from whom all good counsels and just works do proceed, and without whose Divine and special favour we must ever have remained unprofitable servants in His sight. Therefore, after the manner of our holy ancestors, the atoning priests, by this outward form of faith and dependence, the Fiducial sign (shows sign) we show that we would prostrate ourselves with our faces to the dust. Thus must we throw ourselves on the mercy of our Divine Creator and Judge, looking forward with humble but holy confidence to His blessed promises, by which means alone we hope to pass through the ark of our redemption into the mansions of eternal bliss and glory, into the presence of HIM, who is the Great I AM, the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last.

If Most Excellent Zerrubbabel is to give Part 2 he will recover his Sceptre from J. and continue. If not he will take his Sceptre, resume his seat and then say:

I now call upon Excellent Companion ___________ who will give Part 2 of the Mystical Lecture.

(That Companion will come to Most Excellent Zerrubbabel to receive the Sceptre, give a court bow in return and then proceed as follows:)


PART 2

At the building of King Solomon’s Temple a vast number of masons were employed, and their names or marks were found engraven on some part or other of the building, but the names of the three Grand Masters who presided, were nowhere found until they were discovered in the Royal Arch by the Sojourners who were sent to prepare the ground for the foundation of the Second Temple. In the centre of the vault stood a block of white marble, wrought in the form of the Altar of Incense, a double cube; on the top of which was a plate of gold; white being an emblem of innocence and gold of purity. (Moves to North side of the Pedestal slightly in front and points with Sceptre in left hand)

On the front were engraven the initials of the three Grand Masters who presided at the building of the former Temple, namely Solomon King of Israel, Hiram King of Tyre and Hiram Abiff and were meant to perpetuate their names as well as to commemorate the circumstances and proceedings attending the erection of that structure. There was likewise the triple tau, a mark or character affixed to the summonses of Royal Arch Masons. The tau is that mark or sign spoken of by the Angel whom Ezekiel saw in the spirit, when it was said to the man with the writer's inkhorn, "Go through the midst of the City, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark on the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that be done in the midst thereof," by which mark they were saved from amongst those who were slain for their idolatry by the wrathful displeasure of the Most High. In ancient times this mark was placed on those who were acquitted by their Judges in proof of their innocence; and military commanders caused it to be placed on the foreheads of those who returned unhurt from the field of battle denoting that they were in perfect life. For these reasons it has ever been considered a mark or sign of life.

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TonyGosling
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 27, 2018 11:36 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Whatever happened to the Clerk of Works?

by email wrote:
Right back to Solomon's Temple there will have been a master mason or a master builder, who may even be named in the records. In a city like Rome, where people were always creating temples, palaces etc, there will always have been a master builder or mason for each site, maybe several. It is highly unlikely that these people did not communicate with each other, about mundane things like the best quarry to get stone from but also about the secrets of the trade, which were always jealously protected. Master masons must have been hugely important during the Roman Empire, given the road building they indulged in, and villa building in the occupied territories.

I've always been interested in what's 'missing' - think of the 2nd Domesday. What is missing in the historic record generally, are details of who the contractors and builders were. The soldiers are more interesting and get the attention. As a matter of forensic fact the master masons and builders were hugely important. And they may provide an underlying guide to the actual 'masons' as well as the later organised 'Freemasons'. If that tiny clue from the Grand Master in Zurich has any relevance the master masons may well have been involved with the alchemists, the scientists of their day, when they weren't raising the devil and doing occult things.

Restoring the line of master masons to the historic record may be as important as the 2nd Domesday, and as rewarding. When you know who the Master Mason's were you can ask what they did when they weren't on site, getting one stone upon another.

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PostPosted: Sat Jan 27, 2018 1:37 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

History of Freemasonry
https://www.christian-restoration.com/fmasonry/history.htm

When Washington was sworn into office as the first President of the Republic on 30 April 1789 it was by the Grand Master of New York and he took his oath on the Masonic Bible, which was normally used as the Volume of the Sacred Law of St. John's Lodge, No. 1 on the roll of the Grand Lodge of New York.

That same Masonic Bible has been used to swear in every President since then - except George Bush junior as it was too wet a day to produce it.

He was initiated into the Fredericksburg Masonic Lodge five months before his twenty-first birthday on Friday 4 November 1752.

As his mother Lodge met on the first Friday of the month, he was passed to the Second Degree on 3 March 1753 and raised to the 'sublime degree' of a Master Mason on 4 August 1753 in the same Lodge.

At the time of his initiation he had just completed surveying the Virginian estates of Lord Fairfax, whose forebear had introduced Oliver Cromwell to Freemasonry.

Quote:
For example, Sir Thomas Fairfax, commander of Cromwell's 'New Model Army' was a Freemason and his family seat at Ilkley, Yorkshire, still has its own Masonic Temple dating back to this time
The Hiram Key Revisited - Freemasonry: A Plan for a New World-Order


The Fairfax family were very active Freemasons in the Grand Lodge of York and his elder brother Lawrence, with whom George was living at the time, had been educated in England and was married to Lord Fairfax's niece. The Lodge that Washington attended probably followed an ad hoc 'York Rite' Lodge rather than a 'Scottish Rite', but six years after his initiation, in 1758, Fredericksburg Lodge received a Charter from Scottish Grand Lodge which formalised its position.



Although Freemasonry officially traces its beginning from the year 1717 it was in existence prior to this.

A pamphlet entitled 'To All Godly People in the City of London' was distributed in 1698, where it urged its readers to..

..take care lest the Ceremonies and secret swearings take hold of you: and be wary that none cause you to err from Godliness. For this devilish Sect of Men are Meeters in Secret..For how should Men meet in Secret Places and with Secret Signes taking care that none observe them to do the Work of God..? - The Craft, pages 38-38

Stephensons 'Origins of Freemasonry' mentions 'Pre 1710 Masonic Lodges in Scotland with the date of their First Recorded Mention.

1599 9 Jan Aitchison's Haven
1599 31 July Edinburgh
1599 27 Nov St.Andrews
1599 28 Dec Kilwinning
1599 28 Dec Stirling
1599 28 Dec Haddington
1600 Dunfermline
1613 31 Dec Glasgow
1627 Dundee
1654 2 Mar Linlithgow
1658 24 Dec Scone
1670 Perth
1670 Aberdeen
1674 28 Dec Melrose
1677 20 Dec Cannongate Kilwinning
1678 27 Dec Inverness
1687 20 May Dumfries
1688 29 May Leith and Cannongate
1691 Kirkcudbright
1695 25 Mar Hamilton
1695 Apr Dunblane
1701 2 June Kelso
1702 22 Dec Haughfoot
1703 Banff
1704 27 Dec Kilmolymock
1707 Edinburgh Journeymen






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PostPosted: Fri Feb 02, 2018 7:35 pm    Post subject: Secret Societies - Power through Infiltration and Spying Reply with quote

The main objective for forming a 'Secret Society' is to gain power and influence through infiltration, spying and subversion.

i) Subversion (Latin subvertere: overthrow)

ii) Propaganda - a committee of cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church responsible for foreign missions, founded in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV.

Ref: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/propaganda

iii) Propaganda - Part 2 (the Sequel)

Propaganda Due (P2) Masonic Lodge

P2 was sometimes referred to as a "state within a state" or a "shadow government". The lodge had among its members prominent journalists, members of parliament, industrialists, and military leaders—including Silvio Berlusconi, who later became Prime Minister of Italy; the Savoy pretender to the Italian throne Victor Emmanuel; and the heads of all three Italian intelligence services (at the time SISDE, SISMI and CESIS).

Ref: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda_Due

*****************************************************

The real Power Brokers of this world have been employing these infiltration and spying techniques since 'Time Immemorial'.

Co-incidentally, that is how long 3 UGLE masonic lodges have been in existence according to the official United Grand Lodge of England Directory of Lodges and Chapters Book 2012.

See attached PDF for information on UGLE Masonic Lodge numbers 2, 4 and 12.

The directory is available for purchase from the visitors shop, UGLE, Great Queen Street London.

The information may be real or then again it may be propaganda.......

******************************************************



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Directory of Lodges and Chapters 2012.

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Whitehall_Bin_Men
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PostPosted: Mon Feb 05, 2018 3:48 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Two Freemasons' lodges 'New Welcome' (MPs) & 'Gallery' (lobby hacks) operate secretly at Westminster. UGLE, governing body for Masons in England & Wales, said there was no contradiction between the practice of journalism & membership of Freemasonry
https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/feb/04/two-freemasons-lodges -operating-secretly-at-westminster

The 'initiation oaths' of Freemasons are a euphemism for death threats. Freemasonry & public office are incompatible by BY DEFINITION, as Masons swear loyalty to The Craft above serving the public. It's a UK based international political/judicial racket crying out to be exposed.

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PostPosted: Sat Feb 10, 2018 8:56 pm    Post subject: Propaganda Reply with quote

The main objective for forming a 'Secret Society' is to gain power and influence through infiltration, spying and subversion.

i) Subversion (Latin subvertere: overthrow)

ii) Propaganda - a committee of cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church responsible for foreign missions, founded in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV.

Ref: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/propaganda

iii) Propaganda - Part 2 (the Sequel)

Propaganda Due (P2) Masonic Lodge

P2 was sometimes referred to as a "state within a state" or a "shadow government". The lodge had among its members prominent journalists, members of parliament, industrialists, and military leaders—including Silvio Berlusconi, who later became Prime Minister of Italy; the Savoy pretender to the Italian throne Victor Emmanuel; and the heads of all three Italian intelligence services (at the time SISDE, SISMI and CESIS).

Ref: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda_Due

************************************************** ***

The real Power Brokers of this world have been employing these infiltration and spying techniques since 'Time Immemorial'.

Co-incidentally, that is how long 3 UGLE masonic lodges have been in existence according to the official United Grand Lodge of England Directory of Lodges and Chapters Book 2012.

See information on UGLE Masonic Lodge numbers 2, 4 and 12.

The directory is available for purchase from the visitors shop, UGLE, Great Queen Street London.

The information may be real or then again it may be propaganda.......

For more info on Freemasons see

†******************************†

https://pubastrology.com

https://pubastrology.com/the-emperors-new-clothes/

†******************************†

Fig42_Quaterionenadler_David_de_Negker by Prince Arthur, on Flickr

Fig40_DHE HRE 05 by Prince Arthur, on Flickr

One and the same ?

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PostPosted: Tue Feb 13, 2018 11:10 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Freemasons themselves, by here trying to disprove the theory, to my mind, tend to prove it instead.
Any direct translation of the original Larudan pamphlet much appreciated please...

OLIVER CROMWELL AND FREEMASONRY
http://universalfreemasonry.org/en/history/oliver-cromwell

Linking the Invention of Freemasonry to an Effort to Dethrone the King

Three fables [now there's a good, balanced beginning Smile Ed.] have been invented to establish a connection between Freemasonry and the dynasty of the Stuarts one which made it the purpose of the adherents of James II to use the Institution as a means of restoring that monarch to the throne; a second in which the Jesuits were to employ it for the same purpose, as well as for the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic religion in England; the third and most preposterous of these fables is that which attributes the invention of Freemasonry as a secret society to Oliver Cromwell, who is supposed to have employed it as a political engine to aid him in the dethronement of Charles I, in the abolition of the monarchy, and in the foundation of a republic on its ruins, with himself for its head.

The first and second of these fables have already been discussed. The consideration of the third will be the subject of the present chapter. The theory that Freemasonry was instituted by Oliver Cromwell was not at first received like the other two by any large portion of the fraternity. It was the invention of a single mind and was first made public in the year 1746, by the Abbe Larudan, who presented his views in a work entitled Les Franc-Macons Ecrasses, a book which Klass, the bibliographer, says is the armory from which all the enemies of Masonry have since delved their weapons of abuse.

The propositions of Larudan are distinguished for their absolute independence of all historical authority and for the bold assumptions which are presented to the reader in the place of facts. His strongest argument for the truth of his theory is that the purposes of the Masonic Institution and of the political course of Cromwell are identical, namely, to sustain the doctrines of liberty and equality among mankind.

Rejecting all the claims to antiquity that have been urged in behalf of the Institution, he thinks that it was in England where the Order of Freemasonry first saw the light of day, and that it is to Cromwell that it owes its origin. And this theory he claims, with what truth we know not, to have received from a certain Grand Master with whose astuteness and sincerity he was well acquainted. But, even this authority, he says, would not have been sufficient to secure his belief, had it not afterward been confirmed by his reading of the history of the English Protector and his mature reflections on the morals and the laws of the Order, where he detected at every step the presence of Cromwell.

The object of Cromwell, as it has been already said, was by the organization of a secret society, whose members would be bound by the most solemn ties of fraternity, to reconcile the various religions and political sects which prevailed in England in the reign of Charles I to the prosecution of his views. These views were equally opposed to the supremacy of the king and to the power of the Parliament, and as a consequence of the destruction of both, to the elevation of himself to the headship of affairs. In the execution of this plan, Cromwell proceeded with his usual caution and address.

He first submitted the outline to several of his most intimate friends such as Algernon Sidney, Harrington, Monk, and Fairfax, and he held with them several private meetings. But, it was not until the year 1648 that he began to take the necessary steps for bringing it to maturity. In that year, at a dinner which he gave to a large number of his friends, he opened his designs to the company.

When his guests, among whom were many members of Parliament, both Presbyterians and Independents the two rival religious sects of the day, had been well feasted, the host dexterously led the conversation to the subject of the unhappy condition of England. He showed in a pathetic manner how the unfortunate nation had suffered distracting conflicts of politics and religion, and he declared that it was a disgrace that men so intelligent as those who then heard him did not make an exertion to put an end to these distracting contests of party.

Scarcely had Cromwell ceased to speak when Ireton, his son-in-law, who had been prepared for the occasion, rose, and, seconding the sentiments of his leader, proceeded to show the absolute necessity for the public good of a conciliation and union of the many discordant parties which were then dividing the country. He exclaimed with fervor that he would not, himself, hesitate to sacrifice his fortune and his life to remedy such calamities, and to show to the people the road they ought to take, to relieve themselves from the yoke which was oppressing them and to break the iron scepter under which they were groaning.

But, to do this, it was first necessary, he insisted, to destroy every power and influence which had betrayed the nation. Then, turning to Cromwell, he conjured him to explain his views on this important matter, and to suggest the cure for these evils. Cromwell did not hesitate to accept the task which had, apparently without his previous concurrence, been assigned to him.

Addressing his guests in that metaphorical style which he was accustomed to use, and the object of which was to confuse their intellects and make them more ready to receive his boldest propositions, he explained the obligation of a worship of God, the necessity to repel force by force, and to deliver mankind from oppression and tyranny.

He then concluded his speech, exciting the curiosity of his auditors by telling them that he knew a method by which they could succeed in this great enterprise, restore peace to England, and rescue it from the depth of misery into which it was plunged. This method, he added, if communicated to the world, would win the gratitude of mankind and secure a glorious memory for its authors to the latest posterity.

The discourse was well managed and well received. All of his guests earnestly besought him to make this admirable expedient known to them. But Cromwell would not yield at once to their importunities, but modestly replying that so important an enterprise was beyond the strength of any one man to accomplish, and that he would rather continue to endure the evils of a bad government than, in seeking to remove them by the efforts of his friends, to subject them to dangers which they might be unwilling to encounter.

Cromwell well understood the character of every man who sat at the table with him, and he knew that by this artful address he should still further excite their curiosity and awaken their enthusiasm. And so, it was that, after a repetition of importunities, he finally consented to develop his scheme, on the condition that all the guests should take a solemn oath to reveal the plan to no one and to consider it after it had been proposed with absolutely unprejudiced mind. This was unanimously assented to, and, the oath of secrecy having been taken, Cromwell threw himself on his knees and, extending his hands toward heaven, called on God and all the celestial powers to witness the innocence of his heart and the purity of his intentions.

All this the Abbe Larudan relates with a minuteness of detail which we could expect only from an eye-witness of the scene. Having thus made a deep impression on his guests, Cromwell said that the precise moment for disclosing the plan had not arrived, and that an inspiration from heaven, which he had just received, instructed him not to divulge it until four days had elapsed. The companion though impatient to receive a knowledge of the important secret, were compelled to restrain their desires and to agree to meet again at the appointed time and at a place which was designated.

On the fourth day, all the guests repaired to a house in King Street, where the meeting took place, and Cromwell proceeded to develop his plan.

And here the Abbe Larudan becomes fervid and diffuse in the minuteness with which he describes what must have been a wholly imaginary scene.

He commenced by conducting the guests into a dark room, where he prepared their minds for what was going to occur by a long prayer, in the course of which he gave them to understand that he was in communion with the spirits of the blessed. After this, he told them that his design was to found a society whose only objects would be to render due worship to God and to restore to England the peace for which it so ardently longed.

But this project, he added, requited consummate prudence and infinite address to secure its success. Then taking a censer in his bands, be filled the apartment with the most subtle fumes, so as to produce a favorable disposition in the company to hear what he had further to say.

He informed them that at the reception of a new adherent it was necessary that he should undergo a certain ceremony, to which all of them, without exception, would have to submit. He asked them whether they were willing to pass through this ceremony, to which proposition unanimous consent was given. He then chose from the company five assistants to occupy appropriate places and to perform prescribed functions.

These assistants were a Master, two Wardens, a Secretary, and an Orator. Having made these preparations, the visitors were removed to another apartment, which had been prepared for the purpose, and in which was a picture representing the ruins of King Solomon's Temple.

From this apartment, they were transferred to another, and, being blindfolded, were finally invested with the secrets of initiation. Cromwell delivered a discourse on religion and politics, the purport of which was to show to the contending sects of Presbyterians and Independents, representatives of both being present, the necessity, for the public good, of abandoning all their frivolous disputes, of becoming reconciled, and of changing the bitter hatred which then inspired them for a tender love and charity toward each other.

The eloquence of their artful leader had the desired effect, and both sects united with the army, in the establishment of a secret association founded on the professed principles of love of God and the maintenance of liberty and equality among men, but whose real design was to advance the projects of Cromwell, by the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a commonwealth of which he should be the head.


It is unfortunate for the completed symmetry of this rather interesting fable that the Abbe has refrained from indulging his imagination by giving us the full details of the form of initiation. He has, however, in various parts of his book alluded to so much of it as to enable us to learn that the instructions were of a symbolic character, and that the Temple of Solomon constituted the most prominent symbol. This Temple had been built by divine command to be the sanctuary of religion and as a place peculiarly consecrated to the performance of its august ceremonies.

After several years of glory and magnificence, it had been destroyed by a formidable army, and the people who had been there accustomed to worship were loaded with chains and carried in captivity to Babylon. After years of servitude, an idolatrous prince, chosen as the instrument of Divine Clemency, had permitted the captives to return to Jerusalem and to rebuild the Temple in its primitive splendor. It was in this allegory, says the Abbe, that the Freemasons of Cromwell found the exact analogy of their society.

The Temple in its first splendor is figurative of the primitive state of man. The religion and the ceremonies which were there practiced are nothing else than that universal law engraved on every heart whose principles are found in the ideas of equity and charity to which all men are obliged. The destruction of this Temple, and the captivity and slavery of its worshippers, symbolized the pride and ambition which have produced political subjection among men. The unpitying hosts of Assyrians who destroyed the Temple and led the people into captivity are the kings, princes, and magistrates whose power has overwhelmed oppressed nations with innumerable evils.

And finally, the chosen people charged with the duty of rebuilding the Temple are the Freemasons, who are to restore men to their original dignity. Cromwell had divided the Order which he founded into three classes or degrees. The third or Master's degree was of course not without its Hiramic legend, but the interpretation of its symbolism was very different from that which is given at the present day.

The Abbe thus explains it. The disorder of the workmen and the confusion at the Temple were intended to make a profound impression upon the mind of the candidate and to show him that the loss of liberty and equality, represented by the death of Hiram, is the cause of all the evils which affect mankind.

While men lived in tranquility in the asylum of the Temple of Liberty, they enjoyed perpetual happiness. But they have been surprised and attacked by tyrants who have reduced them to a state of slavery. This is symbolized by the destruction of the Temple, which it is the duty of the Master Masons to rebuild; that is to say, to restore that liberty and equality which had been lost. Cromwell appointed missionaries or emissaries, says Larudan, who propagated the Order, not only over all England, but even into Scotland and Ireland, where many Lodges were established.

The members of the Order or Society were first called Freemasons. Afterward, the name was repeatedly changed to suit the political circumstances of the times, and they were called Levelers, then Independents, afterward Fifth Monarchy Men, and finally resumed their original title, which they have retained to the present day.

Such is the fable of the Cromwellian origin of Freemasonry, which we owe entirely to the inventive genius of the Abbe Larudan. And, yet, it is not wholly a story of the imagination, but is really founded on an extraordinary distortion of the facts of history.

Edmund Ludlow was an honest and honorable man who took at first a prominent part in the civil war which ended in the decapitation of Charles I, the dissolution of the monarchy, and the establishment of the Commonwealth. He was throughout his whole life a consistent and unswerving republican, and was as much opposed to the political schemes of Cromwell for his own advancement to power as he was to the usurpation of unconstitutional power by the King.

In the language of the editor of his memoirs, it was written:

He was an enemy to all arbitrary government, though gilded over with the most specious pretenses; and not only disapproved the usurpation of Cromwell, but would have opposed him with as much vigor as he had done the King, if all occasions of that nature had not been cut off by the extraordinary jealousy or vigilance of the usurpers.[i]

Having unsuccessfully labored to counteract the influence of Cromwell with the army, he abandoned public affairs and retired to his home in Essex, where he remained in seclusion until the restoration of Charles II, when he fled to Switzerland, where he resided until his death.

During his exile, Ludlow occupied his leisure hours in the composition of his Memoirs, a work of great value as a faithful record of the troublous period in which he lived and of which he was himself a great part. In these memoirs, he has given a copious narrative of the intrigues by which Cromwell secured the alliance of the army and destroyed the influence of the Parliament. The work was published at Vevay, in Switzerland, under the title of Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow, Esq., Lieutenant-General of the Tories in Ireland, One of the Council of State, and a Member of the Parliament which began on November 3, 1640. It is in two volumes, with a supplementary one containing copies of important papers. The edition from which I cite bears the date of 1698. There may have been an earlier one.

With these memoirs, the Abbe Larudan appears to have been well acquainted. He had undoubtedly read them carefully, for he has made many quotations and has repeatedly referred to Ludlow as his authority. But, unfortunately for the Abbe's intelligence, or far more probably for his honesty, he has always applied that Ludlow said of the intrigues of Cromwell for the organization of a new party as if it were meant to describe the formation of a new and secret society.

Neither Ludlow, nor any other writer, refers to the existence of Freemasonry as we now have it and as it is described by the Abbe Larudan in the time of the civil wars. Even the Operative Masons were not at that period greatly encouraged, for, says Northouck:

…no regard to science and elegance was to be expected from the sour minds of the puritanical masters of the nation between the fall of Charles I and the restoration of his son.[ii]

The Guild of Freemasons, the only form in which the Order was known until the 18th century, was during the Commonwealth discouraged and architecture was neglected. In the tumult of war, the arts of peace are silent.

_________________
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Martin Van Creveld: Let me quote General Moshe Dayan: "Israel must be like a mad dog, too dangerous to bother."
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Whitehall_Bin_Men
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PostPosted: Thu May 03, 2018 12:42 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

JEWISH PLOT TO TOPPLE KING?
Ramsay
http://aangirfan.blogspot.co.uk/2010/10/jewish-plot-to-topple-king.htm l
The UK's Archibald Ramsay was an 'extreme' right wing opponent of 'Jewish' communism and the alleged Jewish campaign for world domination.

In the 1930s, Ramsay was allied with those top people who were fans of Franco in Spain.

The members of the Establishment who were opposed to Ramsay included influential communists and Jews.

Ramsay believed that alleged Jewish manipulation of the British Establishment dated back at least to the time of Oliver Cromwell.

According to Archibald Ramsay, in his 1952 book "The Nameless War," Oliver Cromwell acted as a paid agent of certain Jews who conspired with him to topple King Charles II. (Oliver Cromwell:Financed By The Jews) t

According to an article, based on Ramsay's book, entitled: 'How the Jews stole Britain' (Cached):

When Charles I was in dispute with Parliament, a Jewish 'Money-Baron' in Holland, named Manasseh Ben Israel, had his agents contact Oliver Cromwell.

They offered him large sums of money if he would overthrow the British monarchy.

Manasseh Ben Israel, and other German and French moneylenders, financed Cromwell.

Manasseh Ben Israel

Fernandez Carvajal of Portugal, often referred to as The Great Jew, became Cromwell’s Chief Military Contractor.

The head of 'the Jewish underground' in England at that time was a Jew named De Souze, who became Portuguese Ambassador to England.

The Jewish plotters introduced Calvinism into England to split Church and State, and divide the people.

Calvinism is of Jewish origin. Calvin’s real name was Cohen.

When he went from Geneva to France he became known as Cauin. Then in England it became Calvin.

At the B’nai B’rith celebrations held in Paris, France, in 1936, Calvin, was enthusiastically acclaimed to have been of Jewish descent.

The Jews organized armed mobs to aggravate every situation.

Isaac Disraeli, 1766- 1848, father of Benjamin Disraeli, refers to this in his 'The Life of Charles II'.

He remarks that he obtained information from the records of Melchior de Salem, a Jew, who was French Envoy to the British Government at that time.

Disraeli draws attention to the similarity between the British and the French revolutions.


Cromwell

Lord Alfred Douglas edited a weekly review called Plain English.

In an article, in the issue of 3 September 1921, he explained how his friend, L.D. Van Valckert of Amsterdam, had come into possession of a volume of records of the Synagogue of Muljeim.

One entry, dated 16 June 1647 reads : From O.C. (i.e. Oliver Cromwell) to Ebenezer Pratt.

“In return for financial support will advocate admission of Jews to England. This however impossible while Charles living. Charles cannot be executed without trial, adequate grounds for which do not at present exist. Therefore advise that Charles be assassinated, but will have nothing to do with arrangements for procuring an assassin, though willing to help in his escape.”

In reply to this dispatch the records show E. Pratt wrote a letter dated July 12th, 1647 addressed to Oliver Cromwell.

“Will grant financial aid as soon as Charles removed, and Jews admitted. Assassination too dangerous. Charles should be given an opportunity to escape. His recapture will then make trial and execution possible. The support will be liberal, but useless to discuss terms until trial commences.”

Charles I

On November 12th 1647, Charles I was given the opportunity to escape.

He was recaptured.

The majority in Parliament, on 5 December 1648, agreed “That the concessions offered by the king were satisfactory to a settlement.”

Cromwell ordered Colonel Pryde to purge Parliament of those members who had voted
in favour of a settlement with the King.

The conspirators couldn’t find an English lawyer who would draw up a criminal charge against King Charles.

Carvajal instructed a Jew, Isaac Dorislaus, Manasseh Ben Israel’s Agent in England, to draw up the indictment upon which King Charles was tried.

Charles was found guilty of the charges levelled against him by the International Jewish money-lenders.

On January 30th, 1649, he was beheaded.

The Jewish money-lenders had had their revenge because Edward I had expelled the Jews from England.

Oliver Cromwell received his Blood-Money.

On 18 October 2010, Suraci wrote about Another 911 for the tribe

According to Suraci:

Cromwell's siege of Drogheda, in Ireland, took place in September 1649 at the beginning of Cromwell's conquest of Ireland.

According to Wikipedia, the date was 11 September 1649.

Cromwell - dictator of Britain from 1653-58

Oliver Cromwell was the typical Christian soldier-politician.

"During his lifetime, some tracts painted him as a hypocrite motivated by power [84] " (Oliver Cromwell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia )

Oliver Cromwell and other parliamentary leaders have been "presented as... sexual deviants, even paedophiles." (X * The Later Seventeenth Century -- Steggle et al. 85 (1): 513 ... )

At the siege of Drogheda in September 1649, Oliver Cromwell massacred nearly 3,500 people, including civilians, after the town's capture.[29]

Drogheda in Ireland, 1649.

At the Siege of Wexford in October, another massacre took place, with up to 1,500 civilians murdered by Cromwell's men.[30]

At Drogheda, a group of defenders barricaded themselves in Millmount Fort. They negotiated a surrender, but were then disarmed and killed.

The slave trade is said to have Jewish links. (Slave Trade - Jewish Slave Ship Owners)

Cromwell sent some of the Irish to the West Indies.

Sir William Petty wrote in his The Political Anatomy of Ireland (1672) (Politics.ie • View topic - Oliver Cromwell was a Pimp and Child ...):

"Widows and orphans... were kidnapped and transported by the slave trading merchants of Bristol..."

From the site Politics.ie • View topic - Oliver Cromwell was a Pimp and Child ..., we learn:

"Cromwell had been informed that Englishmen in the West Indies had 'only Negresses and Maroon women to solace them,' as Cromwell's son Henry put it.

"Cromwell's puritan sensibilities did not hinder him from jumping to supply the colonists lust for fresh young white flesh - and making a good profit to boot.

"A Captain John Vernon, for example, was employed by the Commissioners for Ireland to kidnap 250 Irish girls around twelve years of age and transport them to Barbados.

"Once in Barbados they were raped by their English 'masters' and, later, forced to breed with Black men - as the English officers found the Irish girls 'cold' and they needed to be whipped into submission, where 'half caste' girls, who had been trained to their perversions from childhood, were much more to the English taste.

"It's estimated that tens of thousands of Irish children, both boys and girls, were kidnapped to supply this vile trade."

In 1661, Cromwell's corpse was removed from Westminster Abbey and then dangled from a gibbet at Tyburn. His head was displayed on a spike for 20 years.



The Jews are reported to have arrived in 1066 with William the Conqueror.

Allegedly, Jews took part in the ritual murder of Christian children. (Jews expelled from England)

According to From Domesday Book to Magna Carta (1951), p. 353 (The Edict of Expulsion of 1290, expelling the Jews from England): "As usurers ... they had gained a strangle-hold on the recently founded monastic houses whose splendid buildings they had financed, and on many of the smaller aristocratic families..."

Officially, the Jews were expelled from England in 1290 in the reign of King Edward I.

Officially, they were readmitted in 1656 by Cromwell.

The Amsterdam based Rabbi, Menasseh ben Israel, is credited with organising this.

However, there is evidence of an established Jewish community in London before 1655. (Oliver Cromwell - Cromwell and the Jews)
According to Dr John Coleman: "The Jewish Cecil family ... had controlled the British monarchy since a Cecil became the private secretary and lover of Queen Elizabeth." (Cached)

The Jews tended to keep quiet about their religion.

In 1661, a merchant called Thomas Violet declared that "it is Felony for any Jew to be found in England". (Oliver Cromwell and the Jews: a correction - The Guardian)

In the late 19th century, there was mass immigration of Jews from Eastern Europe.

Reportedly, in 1656, Cromwell let 300 Jews return. (How Cromwell gave us Joan Collins and other luminaries - Telegraph)

Winston Churchill's mother was Jewish. ‘Cunning, no doubt, came to Churchill in the Jewish genes transmitted by his mother Lady Randolph Churchill , née Jenny Jacobson/Jerome.’ - Moshe Kohn, Jerusalem Post.

Famous British Jews include:

Dominic Lawson (said to be linked to MI6) (aangirfan: Dominic Lawson, Con Coughlin and MI6)

Jimmy Goldsmith (said to be linked to Lady Diana) (aangirfan: PRINCE WILLIAM'S JEWISH MENTOR, WHO HAS LINKS TO 9 11)

Lord Ted Rothschild (linked to MI6 and said to have given nuclear secrets to Israel) (aangirfan: MI5 and MI6)

Bernard Lewis (alleged spy who helped invent the Clash of Civilisations) (aangirfan: Bernard Lewis: one of the secret rulers of the world?)

Sigmund Warburg (aangirfan: Wiseman, Warburg, Cecil and World War)

Keith Joseph (aangirfan: Margaret Thatcher's Jewish links)

The Sassoons (said to be linked to the drugs trade) (aangirfan: ISRAELIS, DRUGS AND TERROR IN GOA)

Edwina Currie (linked to John Major) (aangirfan: Sex Scandals)

Robert Maxwell (said to be linked to Mossad). (nona-people: The 'Jewish Conspiracy' in the UK)


~~

THE THIRTY NINE STEPS and JEWS


aferrismoon12:58 PM
Wrote this a couple of weeks ago, sorry for length -

Freemasonry seems to amalgamate Ancient Egyptian religion, Judaism, Xtianity and Islam with Western alchemical traditions. The number-word games dissolve the barriers historically in place among them while for others the divisions prove useful for rule.
The Royal Society may be the open aspect of such an organisation, as has been hinted at by such historians as Frances Yates.
Yates also makes mention of Anglo-Jewry and its relationship with Puritanism:

"It was in 1655 that Manasseh came to England, invited by Cromwell to explore the possibility of a settlement of the Jews in England.
At the Restoration it was expected that the reception of the Jews would be abandoned, like other Puritan interests and policies, but this did not happen….Thus Anglo-Jewry in its modern form began in the reign of Charles II , like the Royal Society.
The probable interactions between the English Puritan movement, culminating in the Civil War and the Protectorate, and the contemporary Amsterdam Jewish community , with its intense religious and cultural life, and its earnest Lurianic Cabalism in expectation of the Messiah, is a phase of religious history that has not been examined. Both Jews and Puritans lived in excited expectation of a coming divine event. The Puritans expected the Second Coming and the Christian millennium. It has recently been argued that Puritan cultivation of science had as a motive the bringing-in millennium working to make the world worthy of it, which would hasten its advent. Jewish Lurianic Cabalists worked with intensive meditation and prayer towards making possible the advent of the Messiah. The two movements may have interacted upon one another in more ways than we know.

And the Messiah came……Sabbatai Sevi…in 1665 he revealed himself as the Messiah….a mass movement of enthusiasm was set in motion…..For the movement took a disastrous turn….when in 1666 Sabbatai Sevi apostised to Islam…. Neither the Millennium nor the Messiah had come, but the great tide of spiritual effort left something on the shores of time when it receded. In 1660 the Royal Society was founded, tangible evidence of the arrival of science."

2 messiahs, 1 initiates a force that will become Xtianity , while the other converts to Islam. If a 3rd emerges he'll be just in time for the newly legalized religion , Druidry.

The Puritans had gained a foothold in the 'New World' where they could set up an ideal Christian Qabalist state. Zionism would be acceptable to both Puritans and Jews.

The Amsterdam Jews supported William of Orange , and Puritan antipathy towards Roman Catholicism, led to James II being deposed in 1688 in the 'Glorious Revolution' , which could also be called 'The Orange Revolution'.
Oddly William was the grandson of Charles I who was executed by the Puritans.
Charles' sister Elizabeth [ briefly Queen of Bohemia] was Protestant and married a Calvinist. After they fled Prague in 1621, after the Battle of Bila Hora they held court in the Netherlands. It was the lack of help that her father James I gave her that simmered in the Puritans leading eventually to the English Civil War and the end of Spanish Catholic influence in England.

I reckon a few Jews went to Scotland in 1290 and teamed up with the Templars and invented Freemasonry

Manasseh and the Amsterdam Jews were from Spain where Jews had lived until , ironically, the Moslems were defeated in 1492 , and they lost their protection.Something the Zionists are apt to ignore these days in their nihilistic drive towards Imperium.

A wee connexion twixt William of Orange and William Arthur Goldsmith Windsor [ formerly of Sachs - Coburg] who traces his lineage back to the House of David and the Tribe of Judah.

The Royal House apparently defends the 'Faith' , though which one would be telling.

cheers


aferrismoon1:11 PM
In 1290 , instead of the boat, I reckon a few Jews went to Scotland and met up with Templars, set up the Masons and plotted how to get bcak what they felt was theirs.

Finally it all came together with Jacobus Stewart [ distant grandfather of Jon Stewart?] who created the Union. This continues with William of Orange and the Glorious [Orange] Revolution.

Now we're up to speed with William Arthur Goldsmith Windsor [ formerly SACHS -a Coburg] , of the Royal House of David and the Tribe of Judah.

Defender of the 'Faith' , but which one

Also the Northern Ireland flag has the Hex upon it.

The Jews of Amsterdam fled Spain after the Moslems were defeated. Under Moslem rule the jews were'nt persecuted which just goes to show how spiteful the Zionist attitude to Islam is, and the 'denial' of Jewish-Moslem friendship.

In the middle of writing a post about this , coincidentally enough


chuckyman3:09 PM
Excellent exposé Aangirfan and fleshes out the vile actions of this monster. To this day his name conjures a black memory in my countrymen. Yet another example of the real history of Ireland and Britain that has vanished down the memory hole.

Cromwell was not the last either. The restoration of the monarchy in England stymied certain plans for the Sanhedrin. That was the cause for the second ‘glorious revolution’ under the Dutch pretender William of Orange. That led to an English Civil War fought on Ireland’s soil. The roots of centuries of sectarian stifle were laid and the money changers have been securely in control since.

Few bother to examine the slave trade in its entirety. The poor souls didn’t just appear by magic in their plantations. Vast fortunes were made and whole communities were devastated in the process. As for the fate of the victims, let that be a lesson for us all.

Sounds a bit like our recent chat Veritas (grin).

Reply
Harry4:39 PM
There's plenty to blame Cromwell for without spurious linking of Cromwell, Jew and Ireland. The Jesuits, in a foreshadowing of the US during the Hungarians in 1956, whipped up the Irish to rebel and then did nothing to supply them with the tools necessary to win. If anyone's to blame for Cromwell in Ireland it is the Vatican and their stooges. The rest of your piece is as ever very good.

Reply
aferrismoon7:02 PM
Sorry for two comments , I did one and it claimed not to have loaded so I rewrote it.

Harry -
Elizabeth of Bohemia was the daughter of James I and it was supposed that he would support his daughter when her and Frederick came to the throne.

James didn't and within a few minutes the 'Protestants' were routed.

Most of Puritanism grew out of the Christian Cabalism of the Elizebethan era.

The influence of certain Jews on Cromwell and England is undeniable yet very little has been written about it.

Was the massacre of irish Catholics revenge for the expulsion of Spain?

Reply
chuckyman7:17 PM
LOL Harry – the Jesuits. Aferrismoon knows the historical facts better but I have lived the recent history personally. Irish volunteers have always suffered from the twins dangers of state repression and from excommunication by the Catholic Church.

The border campaign came around due to the natural response to the presence of the British in Ireland – just as it did in the 30’s and 40’s. It failed due to a lack of open support from the Irish nationalist and the desire of the civilian population to support ‘constitutional’ politics.

It was the failure of this popular support that encouraged a minority of the Dublin leadership to pursue Marxists teachings. This caused 2 subsequent failures. They sold their weapon to the Welsh nationalists and left us defenceless when the manure in the fan in the late 60’s. Secondly the majority of republican’s considered politicians in the same regard as child molesters.

As for Cromwell I think Aangirfan pretty much nailed his character and motivation.


james griffon11:29 PM
William of Orange issued the charter for the establishment of the Bank of England in 1699.

Reply
veritas64648:20 AM
Hey Aan,..Here we go again....aferrismoon: Please, I mean please:

“I reckon a few Jews went to Scotland and met up with Templars, set up the Masons and plotted how to get bcak what they felt was theirs.” [???]

Everyone’s an authority on Templarism, go figure, such a secret society, pity they have no * secrets!

The English Templars that went north because they had a contract with Bonnie P C were tantamount to victory at the River of Bannockburn, they were also the reason why the big yins got flogged at Culloden: The Templars were not paid what was agreed and they left the field; as well they should, would you work for no pay?

So much has been written about the Knights Templar, the books, the movies, all the ‘shrouded’ history of the Holy Grail, the disappearance of an Order that so many admired and feared. Many get surprised when I tell them, the Order is alive and well, maybe its purpose changed only to accommodate a new era.

The church condemned the Knights Templar all over Europe with the exception of Portugal. King Dinis, (Denis), of Portugal negotiated with the Pope John XXII after the institution name was changed in 1318 to the Order of Christ, the pope approved the institution in March 14 1319 by Papal bull. The stronghold of the Templars in Portugal is the Convent of Christ with its castle in the city of Tomar, Portugal. With that change, no Templar in Portugal was condemned or prosecuted, and the Order lived well and long under the protection of the Portuguese kings. The cross of the Knights Templar; the 'Crux Pattee' is also alive and well to the present day.

When the organization was renamed the Order of Christ by king Dinis of Portugal, the cross was not changed. You can see it on the Portuguese Navy training barque NRP Sagres III. The Crux Pattee has astronomical significance,..oooh boogie boogie: I know a seeeecret! Naa naa na na naaa!

There has been in recent years a resurgence of Templarism through a discrete connexion between hereditary Knights Templar. This resurgence is now public and the Order is expanding exponentially: I believe that “Nothing is stronger than an idea whose time has come.” Victor Hugo – Temple Knight

They will be at the forefront of any rebellion against the satanic synagogue I can promissory you (grin)!

veritas

Three facts: Templars have never been nor have ever been associated with b'nai br'ith - masons. Or Yids, or plots to overthrow anyone!

Apart from Lucifer and his minions!

Reply
aferrismoon1:21 PM
Veritas - I shall bow knightly to your evidently greater knowledge. I didn't say the Templar's were a secret society - judging by their enormous red-crosses emblazoned on their livery, I doubt they thought they were.

History has been written leaving out matters we don't know even exist, and history is often written by the victors.

Do u have a good reason why Jews and persecuted Knights might not get together.

Your opening : 'Please I mean Please" is a well known construct meant to demean without having anything constructive to say on the matter!


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TonyGosling
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PostPosted: Fri Aug 17, 2018 2:36 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

first part of the translation



Translated extract from De l’Origine des Franc-Maçons, pp. 76 ff.

In 1640, Cromwell, conversing one day with Sir [Thomas] Chicheley about religion, spoke to him in these terms: "I could very well tell you what I would not like, but I cannot tell you what I would like." Ambiguous words, and ones which contain the design in which Cromwell was to lay the foundations of a Society in which all religious affiliations would be irrelevant. This is in fact easy to conceive of, if one considers the way in which he sought to reconcile, in 1648, a multitude of different denominations. Such, for example, were the Presbyterians; the Independents, who flattered themselves that they could exist under any kind of government; the Agitators, whose army supported the interests of, and who fought, they said, for the free exercise of the Anglican denomination; the Levellers, whose aim was the abolition of all monarchical power; in a word, so many other parties divided in their interests and sentiments, which his approach found the means to unite together. The first undertaking that he managed to accomplish successfully, and that for some time he would not drop except to take care of another which seemed to him no less worthy of his attention, was the reform of politics among the English; a task which a heated dispute between Parliament and the soldiers in 1647 gave him an opportunity to bring about. Parliament, still attached to the party of King Charles, was trying maintain him against the Army, which had become his adversary; but Cromwell was so good at handling the divided sentiments that he was able to head off the uprising by making them understand that they would soon have satisfaction anyway. But this calm which he had just re-established was merely a favourable time that he had wished to buy for himself to sound out people’s feelings cunningly, and to to exploit their varying attitudes to bring about the massive projects which he was incessantly pushing. And indeed, in 1648, he was not backward about making known the fruits he had plucked from this interval. Having arrived one day in Parliament with Ireton, his confidant, he held forth in a monologue in which he declared loudly: "King Charles has ceased to be the father of the people, becoming its tyrant; not only does England no longer belong to him as a subject, but moreover this nation is from now on going to have to govern itself. If Parliament is not disposed at once to make work of restoring liberty, I shall have no further obligation to him for the benefits which the nation might produce for him; but I shall owe it all to my belief in the spirit of the soldiers who fight before my eyes, and whose value is going to become England’s sole resource."
 
Let it not be imagined here that Cromwell's purpose in these discourses was only the exclusion of the King, to introduce democratic government: no; his views extended even further, since in the very time when he was enticing the Royalists, the Presbyterians, and the Independents with the hope of an elusive peace, his project was taking on new strengths. He had already communicated it to some of his friends, such as Algernon Sidney, Newell, Martin Wildeman, Harrington, Monk, Fairfax, and a great many others, all of them behind-the-scenes enemies of the King and Parliament. They had even already held some secret meetings, to plot the means of establishing [the plan] with safety, and to lead it with prudence: which brings me inexorably to relate what went on among them, the first day that Cromwell addressed them on this topic.

In the year 1648, a meal which he gave to his friends, at his expense and at the expense of those who knew his purpose, was the favourable moment which he seized to open up to the company. After there had been heavy drinking by all, and some vague speeches given on religion and politics, Cromwell — in the presence of all the guests, among whom were several Members of Parliament, together with some Presbyterians and Independents, broached the topic of the sad state of England: he made them feel pathetically how much this unfortunate nation was having to suffer from all the differences in religion and politics; what a shame it would be for minds as enlightened as they were, not to put an end to these evils which were cruelly tearing the nation apart. Scarcely had Cromwell reached this point when Ireton, who had had the opportunity to prepare his speech, rose abruptly, and looking penetratingly at the whole company, assured him of the necessity of reconciling together, for the public good, so many contrary parties which were its scourge. He added vehemently that he would not hesitate to sacrifice his goods and his blood to remedy so many misfortunes, and to show men the path they must take to shake off the yoke that oppressed them, and to shatter the iron sceptre under which they were being made to groan; but that to begin this great work worthily, it was first necessary to destroy all power which had betrayed the nation’s interests.

After this, he turned to Cromwell, urging him to explain what he thought of the matter. Never was a request more promptly indulged. Cromwell duly rose; and after endless grimaces, accompanied by so many metaphors, the better to prepare his audience, he set forth in ambiguous terms the duty of worshipping God, the necessity of repelling strength by force, of delivering our fellow-creatures from oppression and tyranny; and finishing his speech at once, he desired to pique the curiosity of all the guests by making them understand that he knew an infallible means of succeeding in this great enterprise, of restoring to England the peace which she longed for, by drawing her from the abyss into which she had been plunged; and that this means, communicated to the universe to draw the same advantage in it, would warrant the recognition of men, to the extent of causing the memory of its author to live on to the most remote posterity. Cromwell was soon satisfied; no sooner had he ceased to speak than every guest prayed him, begged him to reveal this admirable expedient. But far from yielding to their eagerness, he only annoyed them even more by contenting himself with answering modestly that such a prodigious achievement surpassed man’s strength; that being merely the one man who was starting it, by the rectitude of his intentions and the firmness of his courage, but at the same time unable to accomplish it without help, he preferred to groan in secret, and to share in a common [to society] misfortune, than to expose to the most terrible danger men who were perhaps weak enough to be frightened by [the solution].

What address, what ruse [has ever been] better concerted! What political background could have been more ingenious to disguise his designs, and to bring them unwittingly to their purpose! Of all those who were at table with Cromwell, there was none of whose character he was unaware. This remarkable [intelligence] penetration, which revealed to him even the slightest movements afoot in the heart of his enemies, had evidently not abandoned him in the choice of those whom he intended to serve as a support for his project. He spent a few moments, during which he amused himself only by laughing and joking with his friends, making sure of them even more perfectly, and drawing from each heart its last secret, even while shrouding his own in impenetrable darkness. Thereafter, the proceedings recommenced, and they became more lively than before, especially on the part of his confidants, whom he had expressly urged that they should press him unyieldingly.
 
Cromwell, therefore, consented to open up, and after having greatly impressed upon the guests the value of a confidence such as this, he told them that he was ready to communicate a great plan to them, on the condition, however, that every guest should engage in an oath to reveal nothing to anyone, and to consider his design, and the plan he was going to propose, with an entirely calm spirit. The conditions were accepted unanimously, and Cromwell, having obtained what he had demanded, began by kneeling, and raising his hands to heaven, taking God and all the heavenly powers to witness to the innocence of his heart and the purity of his intentions. This prayer was accompanied by a pompous mass of emphatic expressions, after which, addressing the guests, he told them that the moment had not yet come for to reveal to them what he had promised; that a celestial inspiration which he had just felt obliged him to postpone for four days, at the end of which interval he urged them to reconvene at King’s Street, at six o'clock in the evening. However desire there was, then, however much keenness everyone felt to know this important secret, it was necessary to postpone the party to the day appointed by Cromwell, and to go their separate ways [for now], but not before having renewed the promise to disclose nothing of what they had witnessed: a promise all the less difficult to maintain, since Cromwell had not yet made anything known.

At last, on the fourth day, everyone went to the appointed place, still in fear, however, that Cromwell had not yet received a visit from the Holy Ghost, who might send him away as before. But this time, he had been so comfortable with Heaven that the ceremony could begin. So he led his band into a dark room, where he prepared them by long prayers, in which he behaved such a way as to make known that he was really in communion with the blessed spirits. This prelude done, he spoke to the whole assembly, saying that his purpose was toto found a society whose sole object was to restore to God the worship which is due to Him, and to England the peace which she desired; but that a project of this consequence required consummate prudence and infinite skill. Then, taking the world’s most subtle censer [of incense or meant figuratively of speech], he lavished all its vapours on all those whom the room contained; and after having put them in the most favourable moods, by these praises and elegies with which he overwhelmed them, he made them understand that this had come to him in the spirit of practising a certain ceremony for the reception of every new member which he would have to undergo; that since this ceremony contained nothing relating to the Divinity, it seemed to him a most promising thing to establish, provided, however, that the band consented to accept it. The proposition was universally received; and Cromwell having received the vote of all present, he chose five from among them, to occupy the places of which we shall speak later; that is, two Surveillants, a Secretary, a Speaker, and a Master; such were the titles which he gave them himself. This new promotion made, he made his band change rooms, introducing them to another prepared for the purpose, and on whose floor one saw a representation of the ruins of the Temple of Solomon: we will have occasion to speak about this anon. From this new room, he passed to yet another, where he advised them to redouble their prayers to be found worthy of finally entering the one that was the centre of this light which was to enlighten them. For his own part, having taken the lead, he sent to his disciples a Surveillant charged with asking each one politely to be willing to allow that his eyes be blindfolded until he had been introduced to the place destined to receive him. The desire to see things more clearly made each one willing to consent to lose his sight of the light for a moment; which was accomplished without having to blandish any of them.

All the ceremonial performed, and the blindfold removed from each man, Cromwell’s conversation turned first to politics and religion. He set out the Presbyterians and the Independents were to be mutually reconciled, exhorting them to abandon all these trivial disputes, which, not at all bearing upon the essence of the matter, merely embittered men’s souls and changed the most tender love into the most irreconcilable hatred.

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TonyGosling
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PostPosted: Fri Aug 17, 2018 2:37 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

first part of the translation



Translated extract from De l’Origine des Franc-Maçons, pp. 76 ff.

In 1640, Cromwell, conversing one day with Sir [Thomas] Chicheley about religion, spoke to him in these terms: "I could very well tell you what I would not like, but I cannot tell you what I would like." Ambiguous words, and ones which contain the design in which Cromwell was to lay the foundations of a Society in which all religious affiliations would be irrelevant. This is in fact easy to conceive of, if one considers the way in which he sought to reconcile, in 1648, a multitude of different denominations. Such, for example, were the Presbyterians; the Independents, who flattered themselves that they could exist under any kind of government; the Agitators, whose army supported the interests of, and who fought, they said, for the free exercise of the Anglican denomination; the Levellers, whose aim was the abolition of all monarchical power; in a word, so many other parties divided in their interests and sentiments, which his approach found the means to unite together. The first undertaking that he managed to accomplish successfully, and that for some time he would not drop except to take care of another which seemed to him no less worthy of his attention, was the reform of politics among the English; a task which a heated dispute between Parliament and the soldiers in 1647 gave him an opportunity to bring about. Parliament, still attached to the party of King Charles, was trying maintain him against the Army, which had become his adversary; but Cromwell was so good at handling the divided sentiments that he was able to head off the uprising by making them understand that they would soon have satisfaction anyway. But this calm which he had just re-established was merely a favourable time that he had wished to buy for himself to sound out people’s feelings cunningly, and to to exploit their varying attitudes to bring about the massive projects which he was incessantly pushing. And indeed, in 1648, he was not backward about making known the fruits he had plucked from this interval. Having arrived one day in Parliament with Ireton, his confidant, he held forth in a monologue in which he declared loudly: "King Charles has ceased to be the father of the people, becoming its tyrant; not only does England no longer belong to him as a subject, but moreover this nation is from now on going to have to govern itself. If Parliament is not disposed at once to make work of restoring liberty, I shall have no further obligation to him for the benefits which the nation might produce for him; but I shall owe it all to my belief in the spirit of the soldiers who fight before my eyes, and whose value is going to become England’s sole resource."
 
Let it not be imagined here that Cromwell's purpose in these discourses was only the exclusion of the King, to introduce democratic government: no; his views extended even further, since in the very time when he was enticing the Royalists, the Presbyterians, and the Independents with the hope of an elusive peace, his project was taking on new strengths. He had already communicated it to some of his friends, such as Algernon Sidney, Newell, Martin Wildeman, Harrington, Monk, Fairfax, and a great many others, all of them behind-the-scenes enemies of the King and Parliament. They had even already held some secret meetings, to plot the means of establishing [the plan] with safety, and to lead it with prudence: which brings me inexorably to relate what went on among them, the first day that Cromwell addressed them on this topic.

In the year 1648, a meal which he gave to his friends, at his expense and at the expense of those who knew his purpose, was the favourable moment which he seized to open up to the company. After there had been heavy drinking by all, and some vague speeches given on religion and politics, Cromwell — in the presence of all the guests, among whom were several Members of Parliament, together with some Presbyterians and Independents, broached the topic of the sad state of England: he made them feel pathetically how much this unfortunate nation was having to suffer from all the differences in religion and politics; what a shame it would be for minds as enlightened as they were, not to put an end to these evils which were cruelly tearing the nation apart. Scarcely had Cromwell reached this point when Ireton, who had had the opportunity to prepare his speech, rose abruptly, and looking penetratingly at the whole company, assured him of the necessity of reconciling together, for the public good, so many contrary parties which were its scourge. He added vehemently that he would not hesitate to sacrifice his goods and his blood to remedy so many misfortunes, and to show men the path they must take to shake off the yoke that oppressed them, and to shatter the iron sceptre under which they were being made to groan; but that to begin this great work worthily, it was first necessary to destroy all power which had betrayed the nation’s interests.

After this, he turned to Cromwell, urging him to explain what he thought of the matter. Never was a request more promptly indulged. Cromwell duly rose; and after endless grimaces, accompanied by so many metaphors, the better to prepare his audience, he set forth in ambiguous terms the duty of worshipping God, the necessity of repelling strength by force, of delivering our fellow-creatures from oppression and tyranny; and finishing his speech at once, he desired to pique the curiosity of all the guests by making them understand that he knew an infallible means of succeeding in this great enterprise, of restoring to England the peace which she longed for, by drawing her from the abyss into which she had been plunged; and that this means, communicated to the universe to draw the same advantage in it, would warrant the recognition of men, to the extent of causing the memory of its author to live on to the most remote posterity. Cromwell was soon satisfied; no sooner had he ceased to speak than every guest prayed him, begged him to reveal this admirable expedient. But far from yielding to their eagerness, he only annoyed them even more by contenting himself with answering modestly that such a prodigious achievement surpassed man’s strength; that being merely the one man who was starting it, by the rectitude of his intentions and the firmness of his courage, but at the same time unable to accomplish it without help, he preferred to groan in secret, and to share in a common [to society] misfortune, than to expose to the most terrible danger men who were perhaps weak enough to be frightened by [the solution].

What address, what ruse [has ever been] better concerted! What political background could have been more ingenious to disguise his designs, and to bring them unwittingly to their purpose! Of all those who were at table with Cromwell, there was none of whose character he was unaware. This remarkable [intelligence] penetration, which revealed to him even the slightest movements afoot in the heart of his enemies, had evidently not abandoned him in the choice of those whom he intended to serve as a support for his project. He spent a few moments, during which he amused himself only by laughing and joking with his friends, making sure of them even more perfectly, and drawing from each heart its last secret, even while shrouding his own in impenetrable darkness. Thereafter, the proceedings recommenced, and they became more lively than before, especially on the part of his confidants, whom he had expressly urged that they should press him unyieldingly.
 
Cromwell, therefore, consented to open up, and after having greatly impressed upon the guests the value of a confidence such as this, he told them that he was ready to communicate a great plan to them, on the condition, however, that every guest should engage in an oath to reveal nothing to anyone, and to consider his design, and the plan he was going to propose, with an entirely calm spirit. The conditions were accepted unanimously, and Cromwell, having obtained what he had demanded, began by kneeling, and raising his hands to heaven, taking God and all the heavenly powers to witness to the innocence of his heart and the purity of his intentions. This prayer was accompanied by a pompous mass of emphatic expressions, after which, addressing the guests, he told them that the moment had not yet come for to reveal to them what he had promised; that a celestial inspiration which he had just felt obliged him to postpone for four days, at the end of which interval he urged them to reconvene at King’s Street, at six o'clock in the evening. However desire there was, then, however much keenness everyone felt to know this important secret, it was necessary to postpone the party to the day appointed by Cromwell, and to go their separate ways [for now], but not before having renewed the promise to disclose nothing of what they had witnessed: a promise all the less difficult to maintain, since Cromwell had not yet made anything known.

At last, on the fourth day, everyone went to the appointed place, still in fear, however, that Cromwell had not yet received a visit from the Holy Ghost, who might send him away as before. But this time, he had been so comfortable with Heaven that the ceremony could begin. So he led his band into a dark room, where he prepared them by long prayers, in which he behaved such a way as to make known that he was really in communion with the blessed spirits. This prelude done, he spoke to the whole assembly, saying that his purpose was toto found a society whose sole object was to restore to God the worship which is due to Him, and to England the peace which she desired; but that a project of this consequence required consummate prudence and infinite skill. Then, taking the world’s most subtle censer [of incense or meant figuratively of speech], he lavished all its vapours on all those whom the room contained; and after having put them in the most favourable moods, by these praises and elegies with which he overwhelmed them, he made them understand that this had come to him in the spirit of practising a certain ceremony for the reception of every new member which he would have to undergo; that since this ceremony contained nothing relating to the Divinity, it seemed to him a most promising thing to establish, provided, however, that the band consented to accept it. The proposition was universally received; and Cromwell having received the vote of all present, he chose five from among them, to occupy the places of which we shall speak later; that is, two Surveillants, a Secretary, a Speaker, and a Master; such were the titles which he gave them himself. This new promotion made, he made his band change rooms, introducing them to another prepared for the purpose, and on whose floor one saw a representation of the ruins of the Temple of Solomon: we will have occasion to speak about this anon. From this new room, he passed to yet another, where he advised them to redouble their prayers to be found worthy of finally entering the one that was the centre of this light which was to enlighten them. For his own part, having taken the lead, he sent to his disciples a Surveillant charged with asking each one politely to be willing to allow that his eyes be blindfolded until he had been introduced to the place destined to receive him. The desire to see things more clearly made each one willing to consent to lose his sight of the light for a moment; which was accomplished without having to blandish any of them.

All the ceremonial performed, and the blindfold removed from each man, Cromwell’s conversation turned first to politics and religion. He set out the Presbyterians and the Independents were to be mutually reconciled, exhorting them to abandon all these trivial disputes, which, not at all bearing upon the essence of the matter, merely embittered men’s souls and changed the most tender love into the most irreconcilable hatred.



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The Masonic Trowel
http://www.themasonictrowel.com/Articles/Manuscripts/manuscripts/the_b ologna_statues_of_1248.htm

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MASONIC QUOTES BY BROTHERS
Being persuaded that a just application of the principles, on which the Masonic Fraternity is founded, must be promote of private virtue and public prosperity, I shall always be happy to advance the interests of the Society, and to be considered by them as a deserving brother.
[GEORGE WASHINGTON]


THE BOLOGNA STATUES OF 1248

From the Regular Grand Lodge of England

So far, the Earliest known Masonic record, the Statutes of the town of Bologna, dated 1248.
From the Spanish translation of the Latin original a Dutch, French and an English translation were made. As they precede the other famous statutes of Strasbourg of 1459, they should be of great value with regard to the usages in the mason’s craft.
We did find several elements, which are typical for the craft, but the difference of two centuries seems too great to speak about a ‘development’. The main difference, which may be of decisive importance, is the fact that the statutes of Bologna settle the rules for a trade union within the municipality of a town, by the ‘College of Ancients’, whereas those of 1459 refer to rules to be valid in the whole of the German ‘Holy Roman Empire’. And even beyond it!
The statutes of Bologna recognise the municipal authorities as the chief, so that the ‘potentate’ is the master of the lodge. This makes the masters mason the executors of the building projects of the town, reducing doubtlessly their liberty of action. Under these circumstances it is not surprising that the majority of rules determine the penalties or fines to be paid by masters or fellowcrafts, when they do not comply with or violate certain rules. These penalties are expressed in old currency values of Bologna. As they are now of little value we left the old expressions as they were: deniers, sous, and pounds. One person in the statutes is frequently mentioned. As we started from the Spanish translation, he was called ‘masero’. The French word would be massier, both words having the Latin origin of ‘massarius’. It can be deduced from the text, that this man had a position slightly lower than the masters. But he is always mentioned together with the masters as a separate officer, so it always says: ‘We enact and order, that the officers and massarius...’. in many cases it is this officer, who has the responsibility for quite a number of different actions. Even if the background could be an other one, we translated this word by ‘polier’ (or parlier), an officer mentioned later in the statutes of Strasbourg. The English equivalent should be ‘foreman’, similar to the Dutch ‘voorman’. It is not so much the fact that a ‘massier’ is holding a baton, thus becoming comparable to the Deacons of Freemasonry, but the intermediary between the authorities and the craftsmen. Moreover, the comparison with deacons cannot come into consideration, as they were only ‘invented’ in the course of the 18 century. Although there are some apparent restrictions to be observed, when comparing these statutes with later Masonic craft statutes, these were a welcome addition to our knowledge of the old craft.
THE STATUTES AND RULES OF BOLOGNA, FROM 1248
In the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Amen
In the year of the Lord 1248, sixth indiction.
STATUTES AND RULES OF THE MASTER MASONS AND CARPENTERS
These are the statutes and rules of the trade union of the master masons and carpenters, made in honor of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, the blessed Virgin Mary and all saints, and in honor of the good fortune of the town of Bologna and the trade union of said masters, with respect and in honor of the potentate and captain of Bologna, who governs or will govern in future, and with respect to the statutes and rules of the society of Bologna, in existence or to be made. And may all following statutes from now on be applied, to be from today, the year 1248, the sixth indiction, the eighth day of August.
I Oath of the abovementioned masters.

I, master carpenter and mason, who is or will belong to the union of said masters, I swear in honor of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and all saints, and in honor of the potentate and captain , who is now in charge, or who will be in charge in future, and in honor of the good fortune of the town of Bologna and all those, who will govern the town of Bologna, that I will conform myself and obey to all and each of the orders given to me by the ((polier) foreman) foreman and the officers of the trade union of masters carpenters and masons, or any of them, in honor and the good fortune of the union, and to preserve and maintain the union and the members of the union in good condition, and to guard and maintain the statutes and rules of the union, as they are now or will be imposed in future, with the respect to all statutes and rules of te town of Bologna, as it is stated that I will be bound by my oath to adhere to them at my entry to the union and that I will be disengaged after my departure.
And if I will be called to the board of the union, I will not refuse but I will accept the command and I will manage with care, and will lead and preserve the union and the members of the union. And I will distribute the charges with equity between the members of the union according to what I and the board of masters will judge convenient. And I will give and cause to give fines, prescribed by the statutes of the union, and when statutary rules are missing, I will impose sanctions according to the will of the board. And all sanctions I will impose for any act, whatever it may be, I will have noted down in a book, and I will hand and give it to the (polier) foreman of the union. And the sanctions, the funds and wages of the union, the statutes, and all that is in his possession with regard to the funds of the union, and all writings and correspondence referring to the union, the (polier) foreman shall remit at the moment the statutes prescribe, and give to the (polier) foreman, who will succeed him in the assembly of the union, under penalty of a fine of 20 Bologna sous. And the accountants are bound to inspect them and pronounce a sanction against the failing (polier) foreman, unless they are prevented by a unanimous decision of the board of the union, or by majority of votes, or due to a fair reason.
And if I will impose, as an officer, a contribution for the expenses of the union, I will first explain the reason to the board, and it will be imposed as the board will decide unanimously or by majority of votes.
II About insulting words against the officers or the (polier) foreman.

We enact and order, that if someone of the union says insulting words to the officers or the (polier) foreman, or against the notary, or if he accuses them of lies, he will be punished with 10 Bologna sous.
III About the penalties to those, who did not come, if they were summoned to a determined place.
We enact and order, that if someone is summoned by the officers, the (polier) foreman or the clergyman to come to a place, where the union assembles, he shall have to come each time and as often as he will be summoned or ordered, on penalty of a fine of 6 deniers. We enact and order, that each shall come to the place, where the union assembles, each time and as often as that will be summoned and ordered by the officers or the (polier) foreman or the clergyman, on penalty of a fine of 6 Bologna deniers. And even if it it is not required, each will be obliged to come the one but last sunday of the month, without summons, carefully, without lie or deceit.
That he is not only bound to it by his oath, but that he will risk the above penalty, even if he was not summoned to come. And if he comes to the place, where the union assembles and he leaves without permission of the (polier) foreman or officers, he shall have to pay as a fine 12 Bologna deniers. Unless in two cases, when he had a real hindrance, or unless he were ill or outside the town, or serving the town of Bologna, in which case he may, as in the other cases, mention his oath of obligatory service. And if he excuses mendaciously, he will be punished with 12 deniers.
IV About the election of officers and the (polier) foreman and about the assemblies of the union.
We enact and order, that the union of the masters carpenter and mason shall have eight officers, and also two (polier) foremen, i.e. for each trade of the uion; and they shall be equally divided over the quarters, and elected by lists in the assembly of the union, so that in each quarter of the town there are two offivers, i.e. one of each trade. And that the officers, with the (polier) foreman, stay in function for six months and no more. And that they shall call the union to assemble and meet on the seond sunday of the month, on penalty of a fine of 3 Bologna sous for each time they infringe, unless they should be withheld in a real force majeure.
We add that the son of a master of the union shall not and cannot be enlisted on the electionlists, if he is not 14 years old at least. And his father shall not have him enter the union before that time, and the son shall not be received into the society before that time. And nobody shall take an apprentice, who is not at least 12 years old, on penalty of a fine of 20 sous, and the contract thus made be without value.
V That nobody can be elected, who is his son or father.

We enact and order that no officer or (polier) foreman can be elected, who is the brother or son of a voting member, and that the vote given on this subject has no value.
VI That the masters obey the officers and (polier) foreman.

We enact and order, that if somebody of the union owes to another master a certain sum of money because of the trade, or if a master has some problem with an other one because of the mentioned trade, then the masters having this quarrel have to obey the orders, which the officers or the masters mason and carpenter will impose for a settlement, on penalty of a fine of 10 Bologna sous.
VII How and in which manner the masters will be received in the union, and how much they owe for their reception.
We enact and order that all masters, who would wish to be received in the union of masters mason and carpenter shall pay to the union 10 Bologna sous, if they belong to the town or region of Bologna; and if they donot belong to the city or region of Bologna, they will pay 20 Bologna sous. And that the officers do realise all of their cares, so that the masters not belonging to the union, will be received obligatorily. And that this prescript is irrevocable, that nobody can in any manner be exempted, unless at least on tenth of the union decides, or unless he is a son of a master, who may be received into the union without payment. And if the (polier) foreman or an officer supports the board or assembly of the union, the request of somebody wishing to spare the 10 or 20 Bologna sous to be given to the union, shall be fined with 10 Bologna sous. And if somebody of the union, having a seat in the assembly or the board, rises to tell that somebody should be spared to pay the 10 or 20 Bologna sous, he will be punished with 5 Bologna sous.
And if a master has one or more sons, who know the trade of the mentioned masters, or who stayed during two years to learn the mentioned trades with his father, then this father shall have him received into the union without reception, paying himself to the union as is mentioned above, on penalty of a fine of 20 sous. And once this was paid, he still has to have him received into the union.
And that the officers and (polier) foreman shall recover the sums due by those, who have been received into the union, and the 4 deniers, due for the masses, and the sanctions pronounced during their period of office. And that they shall have them take their oath in the union. And that the (polier) foreman shall recceive from the master, who has been received into the union a valid guarantee, that within a month after the reception into the union, he will pay 10 sous, when he belongs to the town or region of Bologna, as said before, and when being from another region 20 Bologna sous. And if the (polier) foreman and the officers do not recover the sums, then they have to pay to the union from their own pocket and give a sufficient compensation in money or wages, that the union be safeguarded, and this eight days after the end of the delay of a month. And that the accountants have to control everything as said before, and if this is not observed, to pronounce the sanctions mentioned by the statutes of the union.
We add, that whoever will be received into the union shall pay as a reception fee to the union 20 Bologna sous. We order this for those, who, counting from today, will be employed in future for learning the trade, and that this will be valid for the future from now on, 1254, twelfth indiction, eighth day of March. As far as they are concerned, who will have no master for learning the trade, they will pay as a reception fee to the union 3 Bologna pounds.
VIII That no master shall harm an other master in his work.

We enact and order that no master mason and carpenter shall harm an other master of the union of masters by accepting a work at a fixed price, after having assured him and promised formally, where he did receive this work in a different manner. Except that, if a master turned up before the work was formally promised and assured to him, and he would ask a part, he then shall give him a part, if the other wishes so. But if an agreement was arrived at on the subject of the work, he is not obliged to give him him a part, if he does not wish this. And the one infringing has to pay as a fine 3 Bologna pounds for each time he infringes. And the officers have to impose the fines the statutes prescribe within a month after the infringement became evident and clear to them, with regard to the statutes and rules of the Bologna community. And that the fines and penalties have to be versed to the assembly of the union and remain there.
IX About the accounts the (polier) foreman has to render and about the charge he has to fulfil.
We enact and order that the (polier) foreman of the union of masters shall render the account to the accountants within a month after ending his charge, unless he has the authorisation from the new officers and the board of the union, or that he failed due to a real case of force majeure. And that the (polier) foreman shall answer for all entries and expenses received and paid during his period. And that all masters, who were received into the union during his period will be entered into a special book for this purpose, so that it is known whether they payed or not. And we order that all letters shall remain in the hands of the (polier) foreman. And all letters refferring to the union and everything referring to the properties of the union the (polier) foreman shall give and transfer in writing to the assembly of the union to the following (polier) foreman, so that the funds of the union can in no manner become the object of fraud. And if the (polier) foreman, with a fraudulous intention, left out certain of these prescriptions and did not comply with them, he shall be punished with 20 Bologna sous. And if he has kept funds of the union fraudulously with himself, he shall restitute the double to the union. Besides, the old (polier) foreman shall, after leaving his charge, absolutely be obliged to give and transfer to the new (polier) foreman all funds of the union, letters as well as letters relating to the union and the money of this society, on the first or the second sunday of the month. And the new (polier) foreman shall not extend this term for the old (polier) foreman beyond 15 days. And that this prescription is irrevocable. And if one of the (polier) foremans would infringe, he shall be punished with 20 Bologna sous, to be paid to the society.
X About the election of the accountants.
We enact and order that the accountants shall be elected at the same time as the officers, and that there shall be two of them, i.e. one for each trade. That the accountants shall inspect carefully the (polier) foreman and the officers in function at the same time as the (polier) foreman. And if they discover, that the (polier) foreman and the officers acted wrongly in the excution of their charge, and that they committed fraud or deceit, they shall be condemned to restitute the double of the funds discovered of being withheld. Besides, they are condemned to restitute the equivalent of the pay they received. And that they are obliged to act thus and to inspect and condemn or give acquit within a month after the function of (polier) foreman and officers ceased. And whether they condemn or give acquit they shall to do this in writing to the assembly of the union. And if the accountants infringe and do not observe these prescriptions, each of them shall be punished with 10 sous and they will be fired from their function, unless in a real case of force majeure, or when they received authorisation from the officers and the board of the union.
XI About the transcription of the modifications by the board.

In order to ever prevent any dispute between the members of the union, we enact and order that all changes of the union of the masters mason and carpenter, of of the board of the trade shall be inserted in a special book, and that the (polier) foreman and the officers shall have this done, on penalty of a fine of 5 Bologna sous.
XII The (polier) foreman and the officers shall account for their charge only once and no more.
We enact and order that the (polier) foreman and the officers of the union shall account only once for all expenses and receipts. And after they have once been controled on the account, they shall be no more called for a further account, unless they have been denounced or accused for having committed deceit or fraud, or for having illegally withheld money from the community and union, in which case, whoever may have accused them, shall be heard. And those, who have been controlled once, shall not be controlled once more. And this rule applies for the past as well as for the future.
XIIIAbout the orders to be given by the officvers and the (polier) foreman.
We enact and order that all orders the officers or the (polier) foreman, or one of them, may give with regard to money or other matters regarding the trade, that a master has to give to an other master or has to have them given, these orders shall be given and ordered within 10 days. And if a master, to whom an order was given within 10 days, does not execute them, the officers and the (polier) foreman shall then have to give, within 5 days after the 10 days, a mortgage to the creditor on the properties of his debtor, so that he shall be paid completely for that owned to him and his expenses. And that besides he shall be punished with 5 Bologna sous, if the officers judge this fair. And that this is irrevocable. And the one, who owes money to an other master or an other person, he has been called upon or summoned by the officers or by the clergyman, or clergymen, of the union, and he did not appear before the officers or the (polier) foreman, he shall be punished each time with 12 Bologna sous, if he is traced and if he cannot be traced and he was summoned for a second time, he shall be punished again for the same amount.
XIV About a master hindering an other master in his work.

We enact and order that, if a master has work at a fixed price, or per day, or in any other manner, and he wishes an other master to have the work performed and cooperate with him, then the master who hindered the other master shall give him satisfaction as far as the price is concerned, unless he is no officer or (polier) foreman of the union, who gave this master work for the community of Bologna. And the one who infringes, shall be punished as the officers will determine.
XV How much the masters being officers and the (polier) foreman have to receive as their payment.
We enact and order that the officers and the (polier) foreman, who are in future in function, shall receive as payment, each of them, 5 Bologna sous at the end of six months. And that the officers and the (polier) foreman shall have to recover all penalties, sanctions and contributions before they leave their charge, each in his own quarter. And if they did not recover them within the prescribed time, they shall have to pay from their own money to the union as much in total as they did not recover. And that the officers and the (polier) foreman shall be excluded from any charge during a year after they finished their charge.
And we prescribe that the officers shall not receive wages, nor money, but that the (polier) foreman receives integrally the total amount of wages and money, and before they leave their charge, he shall pay the remuneration to the officers in charge from the funds of the union.
XVI About the candles to be made for the union for deceased on their account.
We enact and order that two candles shall be bought at the charge of the members of the union, which shall be kept by the (polier) foreman of the union. And they shall be 16 pounds of wax in total, and they shall have to be placed with the body, when one of the masters would die.
XVII All masters shall go to the deceased member of the union, when they are summoned.
We enact and order that if one of our members is called or summoned by the clergyman, or by someone else in his stead, to go to that of one of the deceased members and he would not go, he shall pay as a fine 12 Bologna sous, unless he received an authorisation, or was impeded. And the body has to be carried by the members of the union. And the clergyman of the union has to receive from the assembly of the union 18 deniers for each deceased from the properties of the union. And if the clergyman did not go and assemble the members of the union, he shall pay a fine of 18 deniers to the union. And the officers and the (polier) foreman shall collect these sums.
XVIII The officers shall visit the sick members and give them support.
We enact and order that if one of our members is sick, the officers have the duty to visit him when they learn so, and to give him the support and help. And if he dies, and has nothing for the burial, the union shall have him buried honorably at its own expenses. And the (polier) foreman shall make expenses up to the amount of 10 Bologna sous and no more.
XIX The clergymen travel at the expense of those, who were sanctioned, and who neglect to supply wages.
We enact and order that the officers and (polier) foremans, who will be in charge in future, shall collect wages from a master as a remuneration, sanctions or other motives, and charge him with all expenses they make, recurring to the clergymen of the Bologna community, or otherwise to collect them, so that the union does not suffer. And the officers or the (polier) foreman, who made expenses to this end, they make them at their own account, unless they made these expenses according to the wish of the union or the board. And if the one, who has to pay money for this does not allow the clergyman of the union to receive this wage from him, he shall be punished with 3 Bologna sous for eachh time he infringes.
XX About those, who engage by contract.
We enact and order that if somebody engages himself with somebody by contract, without staying and completing his time with his master or patron, he shall not be received before that term by any master of the union, and that no assistance shall be given to him by any master, who instructed him, or to whom he was denounced. And the one who infringes, shall be punished with 20 Bologna sous.
XXI Nobody shall go and receive the benediction more than once.
We enact and order that nobody of the union shall go more than once to receive the benediction. And the one, who infringes, shall be punished with 6 deniers for each infringement.
XXII Nobody shall receive the benediction at one’s own accord.
We enact and order that if somebody receives the benediction at his own accord, he shall be punished with 6 Bologna deniers for each time he infringes.
XXIII Nobody is allowed to be beyond the “horn” of the altar.
We enact and order that nobody shall be allowed to be beyond the “horn” of the altar, turned to the church, on penalty of a fine of 3 deniers for each time he shall have infringed.
XXIV About the equitable share of the corvée between the masters.
We enact and order that if an officer orders a master of his region to go and work for the community, treating him equitably with the other masters and that this one does not go, he shall be punished with 10 Bologna sous. And no master shall indicate another master mason or carpenter regarding work for the community of Bologna or anywhere else; and the one who infringes shall be punished with 20 Bologna sous. The officers, who will be in charge in future, shall make this indication by sharing equitably the masters per quarter, i.e. the officers, who will be present in town, when the indcation will take place. And if one offcier does not treat a master equitably, committing deceit or fraud, when it deals with hostility against him, and this will be clear and evident, he shall be punished with 20 Bologna sous. Except when he is summoned by the potestate, or someone of his surroundig with the aim to charge him with a work for the community of Bologna, he then can associate himself at his will without penalty nor fine.
XXV No one shall rise in an assembly of masters to give his opinion only on what will be proposed by the officers or the (polier) foreman.
We enact and order that nobody of the union shall rise to speak, and give his opinion in an assembly only on what will be proposed by the officers or the (polier) foreman. And the one who infringes shall be punished with 12 Bologna sous, and he shall pay this sum immediately, or he shall give his wages.
XXVI One shall not make noise nor cry, when someone is speaking, or makes a proposal in an meeting of the union of the mentioned masters.
We enact and order that if someone makes noise in a meeting, after an officer or officers or the (polier) foreman or someone else made a proposal, or took the word among the members, if he infringes he shall be punished with 3 deniers, which he shall pay immediately. And the officers and (polier) foreman shall act thus according to their oath. And if they do not respect it, they shall pay the equivalent to the union.
XXVII About the remuneration of the clergyman.
We enact and order that the union shall have a clergyman, i.e. one for two regions and an other one for the other two regions; and they shall receive each 30 Bologna sous annually. And they shall bring candles, if someone dies and look for a living for the (polier) foreman. And they shall receive 1 denier for each task from those, who will thus charge them.
XXVIII How and in which manner the members shall gather for a deceased member, and at which place.
We enact and order that if the deceased belongs to the region of the Steri gate, the members shall gather at Saint Gervais. Amd when the deceased belongs to the region Saint Procule, the members will gather at Saint Ambrosius. Besides, if the deceased belongs to the region of the Ravenna gate, the members shall gather at Saint Etienne. And if the deceased belongs to the region of the Saint Peter gate, the members shall gather at the Saint Peter Church. And the clergymen shall say, when they summon the members, to which region the deceased belonged. And if they do not tell, they shall be punished with 2 Bologna sous for each time they infringe.
XXIX Each member of the union shall pay anually 4 deniers for the masses.
We enact and order that every member of the union shall pay each year 4 deniers for the masses, and the officers shall collect these sums.
XXX One can not take an apprentice for a period less than four years.
We enact and order that nobody of the union is allowed in any manner to take or keep an aprentice during less than four years, and on condition of giving him a pair of bread every week, and a pair of capons at Christmas and 20 Bologna sous for the five years. And who infringes with regard of the time of four years, shall be punished with 3 Bologna pounds. And who infringes with regard to the 20 Bologna sous and the bread and capons, he shall be punished with 20 Bologna sous for each time he infringes with regard to each point. And we order that all acts shall from now on be laid down by the notary of the union in the presence of at least two officers, and they shall be copied in a book, which shall always be kept by the (polier) foreman. And the one, who infringes, shall pay as a penalty 3 Bologna pounds. And this is irrevocable.
XXXI Everyone shall show to the officers the contract of apprenticeship within a year from the moment on, when he received it.
We enact and order that every member of the union shall within a year, to be taken from the moment he has an apprentice, to show the certificate to the officers of the union. And when he infringes, he shall be punished with 5 Bologna sous for every time he infringes.
XXXII Nobody can employ someone, who would not belong to the town or region of Bologna, or who is a servant of someone.
We enact and order that nobody of the union can keep and have any apprentice, who would be a servant, or who comes from another county. The one, who infringes, shall be punished with 100 Bologna sous for each time he infringes. And we prescribe that if somebody of the union takes a servant as his wife, he shall pay as a penalty 10 Bologna pounds being excluded from the union. And this is irrevocable.
XXIII The masters shall have to receive apprentices into the union after two years.
We enact and order that every master shall have his apprentice received into the union, after he has stayed with him during two years, and to receive from this apprentice a fair and sufficient guarantee regarding his entry into the union. The one who infringes shall be punished with 20 Bologna sous for each time he will infringe, at east, if he does not receive this guarantee.
XXXIV Nobody of the union is allowed to work for someone, who is in debt to a master. Very important.
We enact and order that nobody of the union is allowed to work a day or on accord for someone, who has to give or to pay money to a master because of his trade, once he has learned it, or that the case was denounced to him by this master, or the officers of the union. And the one, who infringes shall be punished with 20 Bologna sous per master for each time he infringes, and that he shall pay the masters an indemnity for their work. And the officers shall impose a fine within eight days after the case became evident and clear to them, and have the indemnity paid to the masters.
XXXV The union shall last for ten years.
Besides, we enact and order that the union shall last ten years in total from now on, or any longer as is being decided by the union or the majority by votes.
XXXVI One shall not complain about the officers with the potentate or his tribunal.
Besides, we enact and order that a master of the union cannot and shall not in any manner go to the potentate or his tribunal for complaining about the officers or one of them. And the one infringing shall pay as a fine of 3 Bologna pounds for each time he infringes. And this is irrevocable.
XXXVII Publication of the Statutes.
These Statutes have been read and made public to the assembly of the union, assembled by the clergymen in the usual manner in the cimetery of the church Saint Procule, in the year of the Lord 1248, sixth indiction, the eighth day of August, during the reign of the Lord Bonifacius de Carlo, potentate of Bologna.
XXXVIII The (polier) foreman and the officers shall collect the contributions.
We enact and order that the (polier) foreman of the masters carpenter shall collect all contributions imposed, and sanctions attributed, and penalties given during their charge. And if he does not collect, he shall pay the double amount as a penalty from his own pocket. And the officers shall each go in his region to collect these contributions, sanctions and penalties. And the clergyman of the union shall go with the (polier) foreman, and if they do not go, they shall be punished each with 5 Bologna sous for each time they infringe.
XXXIX The clergyman of the union shall stay in function during one year.
We enact and order that the clergyman of the union shall stay in function during one year, and that he shall receive as a remuneration 40 Bologna sous.
XL About the notary of the union.
We enact and order that the officers and the (polier) foreman shall employ a good notary for the union, and that he stays in function during one year; he has to enter the receipts of the (polier) foreman and his expenses and take care of all letters, alterations of the statutes of the union, and he shall receive as a remuneration 40 Bologna sous.
XLI There shall be two books with the names of the masters carpenter.
We enact andorder that there shall be two books with the names of the masters carpenter, and that one of them is identical with th eother. And the (polier) foreman shall keep one and an other master shall keep the other. And if a mster dies, he shall be erased from these books.
XLII About the accounts to give to the officers and (polier) foreman.
We enact and order that the odfficers and the (polier) foreman shall give an account on every one but last Sunday of the m onth, under the altar of Saint Peter.
XLIII About the setup of the survey.
We enact and order that the officers, who ar ein function in future, shall each of them make a survey of the names of the masters carpenter, according to the content of the nominal list. And if the officers sent out someone to serve the comunity of Bologna, he has to go there in turn, so that nobody shall be leased, on penalty of a fine of 5 spous for each time he infringes.
XLIV Nobody shall say slander about the union.
We enact and order that if somebody of the union says offensive or insulting things about the union, he shall be punished with 20 Bologna sous each time. And this will be orrevocable. And the officers shall collect these sumes. And if they do not collecth them, theyshall pay the double from their own pocket.
XLV The officers shall be unemployed.
We enact and order that the officers, who will be in function in future shall be unemployed during one year, after they finished their charge.
ADDITIONS TO THE STATUTES OF THE MASTERS

XLVI The unions shall meet separately.
We enact and order that the union of the masters carpenter shall meet separately there, where the officers of this union will decide so, and that the union of the masters mason shall meet separately there, where the officers of this union will decide, and this will happen in such manner, that they will not assemble together. Except, if the officers of these unions decide to meet together, then they can meet. And the officers shall stay together to give account to all masters mason and carpenter, who wish to ask them about the accounts twice per month, this being two Sundays.
XLVII About the remuneration of the redactors of the Statutes.
Besides, we enact and order the four officials for the statutes, who will be in function in future, shall each receive 2 Bologna sous as a remuneration.
XLVIII About the manufacture of candles.
Besides, we enact that a candle of a pound shall be made at the expense of the union, to be burning during the masses of the union.
IL About the candles to be given each year to the church of Saint Peter.
Besides, we enact and order that each year at the expense of the union 4 candles of a pound will be given to the church of Saint Peter, cathedral of Bologna, for the Saint Peter festival in the month of June. And that the officers, who are in function in future shall accomplish this on penalty of a fine of 5 Bologna sous for each of them.
L That a master, who fires an apprentice before the term, cannot have an other one.
We enact and order that if a master fires one of his apprentices before the end of the term of 5 years, he cannot have an other apprentice before the time of 5 years is fulfilled, on penalty pof a fine of 40 Bologna sous.
LI About the purchase of a pail for the union.
We enact and order that the (polier) foreman and the officers, who will be in function at New Year, shall buy a good pail for the society at the expense of the society. This pail shall be carried on the members of the union, who will die, as well as members of the family of those of the union for whom it was bought, but not on anybody, who does not belong to the union.
LII About the remuneration of the adviser of the old ones.
We enact and order that the advise, given to the old ones of the union of masons, shall be designated by the officers of this union. And he will have as a remuneration 5 Bologna sous at the expense of the union, of which the officers dispose, whether he will stay and be in function during six months. And if he stays 3 months, he shall only receive 2 sous and 6 deniers of Bologna.
LIII The (polier) foreman and the officers shall give accounts.
We enact and order that the officers and the (polier) foreman of the union in function in future shall have to give account by each member of the union of masons to anybody, being no member of the union, who may ask for them.
LIV No noise shall be made in a meeting.
Besides, we enact and order that no noise nor quarrel shall be made in a meeting of the union. And if one infringes, he shall be punished with 20 Bologna sous.
LV The union has to meet at the church of Saint Peter.
Besides, we enact and order that the union shall meet for all matters in the church of Saint Peter, or in the upper floor of the palace of the lord bishop. And the officers of the union give to the church of Saint Peter 4 candles of a pound. And the mass of the union shall be celebrated in that church.
LVI There shall be more clergymen, when someone of the union dies
Besides, we enact and order that, when someone of the union dies, the officers of the union can have one or more clergymen for assembling the members with the body of the deceased, and to remunerate them as is esteemed well, at the expense of the union.
LVII About those, who do not pay for the masses.
Besides, we enact and order that, if someone does not pay 4 Bologna deniers for the masses in time stated for this by the officers, he shall have to pay the double to the clergyman, who goes to his living to collect this sum.
LVIII About the copies of the Statutes of the union.
Besides, we enact and order that all statutes of the union shall be copied again and that there where the officers mason and carpenter only masons are mentioned, the statutes of the union of masons shall be different from those of the union of the carpenters. And this will be irrevocable.
LIX About the wages to be given to the clergyman of the union.
Besides, we enact and order that if a member of the union does not give wages to the clergyman of the union, when this is asked for by the officers, one shall not work with such people, unless he conforms to the orders of the officers.
LX About the remuneration of the notary of the union.
Besides, we enact and order that the notary of the union shall have as a remuneration at the end of his 6 months charge 20 Bologna sous and no more.
LXI About the remuneration of the controllers.
Besides, we enact and order that the controllers of the accounts shall receive as a remuneration 5 Bologna sous and no more.
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_________________
--
'Suppression of truth, human spirit and the holy chord of justice never works long-term. Something the suppressors never get.' David Southwell
http://aangirfan.blogspot.com
http://aanirfan.blogspot.com
Martin Van Creveld: Let me quote General Moshe Dayan: "Israel must be like a mad dog, too dangerous to bother."
Martin Van Creveld: I'll quote Henry Kissinger: "In campaigns like this the antiterror forces lose, because they don't win, and the rebels win by not losing."
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PostPosted: Sun Dec 16, 2018 11:58 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Seven Churches of Revelation
By John Daniel
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=E4sd0BfAW1IC&pg=PA109&lpg=PA109&dq =abbe+larudan+Cromwell&source=bl&ots=sBaeNvdSLf&sig=_YJ10PX2NWjR0-yt-3 xVILZKlFU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjJsdvaqsreAhXlI8AKHRlwAI0Q6AEwGXoECAYQ AQ#v=onepage&q=abbe%20larudan%20Cromwell&f=false

John Daniel #5 - The Secret Society at the Church of Sardis

Link

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFnP_aiS8ag



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Secret Societies and their Infiltration into the Seven Churches of Revelation (2008)
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_________________
--
'Suppression of truth, human spirit and the holy chord of justice never works long-term. Something the suppressors never get.' David Southwell
http://aangirfan.blogspot.com
http://aanirfan.blogspot.com
Martin Van Creveld: Let me quote General Moshe Dayan: "Israel must be like a mad dog, too dangerous to bother."
Martin Van Creveld: I'll quote Henry Kissinger: "In campaigns like this the antiterror forces lose, because they don't win, and the rebels win by not losing."
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Whitehall_Bin_Men
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PostPosted: Thu Feb 07, 2019 6:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

From
Scarlet and the Beast
A History of the War Between English and French Freemasonry
https://the-eye.eu/public/WorldTracker.org/Military/Osprey%2520Militar y%2520History/Osprey%2520-%2520Scarlet%2520and%2520the%2520Beast%2520- %2520History%2520of%2520the%2520War%2520Between%2520English%2520%2526% 2520French%2520Freemasonry.pdf



Introduction - What Is Freemasonry? Title Page Chart of International Freemasonry Chapter 1: The Conflict: Priory of Sion vs. Knights Templar Chapter 2: English Freemasonry and Revolution Chapter 3: The Religious Wars of France Chapter 4: From England to France Chapter 5: Rejecting Christianity: Pagan Symbols of Freemasonry and the Illuminati Chapter 6: Music and Revolution Chapter 7: The Jewish Connection Chapter 8: The Jesuit Connection Chapter 9: Secular Education - A Masonic Blueprint Chapter 10: Masonic Control of the Media Chapter 11: First War between English and French Freemasonry Chapter 12: French Freemasonry Tries, and Tries Again Chapter 13: The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Sion (not Zion) Chapter 14: Lucifer - God of Freemasonry Chapter 15: Freemasonry and the New Age Movement Chapter 16: New Age Movement Unites English and French Masonry Chapter 17: The First Masonic World War Chapter 18: The Hungarian Masonic Revolution Chapter 19: The Russian Masonic Revolution Chapter 20: The Masonic Ritual Murder of Czar Nicholas II Chapter 21: Competing for World Governance: The Round Table vs. the League of Nations Chapter 22: English Freemasonry and the Hitler Project
Chapter 23: Hitler's Destruction of French Freemasonry Chapter 24: Yalta, Post-War Masonry, and the United Nations Chapter 25: The Address of Scarlet Chapter 26: In Search of the Beast Empire Chapter 27: Headquarters of the Beast Empire Appendix: Notes: Bibliography: Index: Illustrations PREFACE Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who put darkness for light and light for darkness, who put bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter. Isaiah 5:201 What began quite by accident turned into a 20-year research and writing project. In 1972, while taking courses on the Bible at a university in Texas, I happened upon a book that related certain Biblical prophecies I was interested in to what is generally today called "conspiracy" theories of history. I come from a strong conservative, evangelical Protestant family. Both by religious upbringing and from study of the events and direction of modern history, I have long been convinced that we live in the "last days" prophesied in the Bible. Like all believing Christians I understand history as a battle between the forces of good and evil, between God and Satan - from the Garden of Eden to the Second Coming of Christ. As a Christian I also believe that Almighty God is the victor in this great battle, for He is sovereign over all events. He alone will permit the developments of the Apocalypse to mature within His providence and predestination. As Daniel 2:21 tells us, God "removeth kings, and setteth up kings."




The Creation of Masonic Lodges in England Once in England these refugees from the Inquisition infiltrated the guilds Fludd had prepared, while continuing correspondence with Andrea on the Continent. Within a half century they had completely taken over operative masonry and formed what they called Speculative Masonry, keeping the first three degrees of the workingman guilds, and superimposing on them Rosicrucian rituals. They inducted many of the newly rich into their society. They also made contact with one Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), a celebrated antiquarian, expert on chivalric orders and author of the well-known History of the Order of the Garter, initiating him into their Rosicrucian Masonic Lodges in 1646. They became intimate with the young, precocious Robert Boyle, who was destined to be the next Grand Master of the Priory of Sion. And they inducted into their form of Masonry a rebel by the name of Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), directing him to the forefront of the revolution.18 (Ashmole would later turn Masonry against Cromwell.) Cromwell and Rosicrucian Freemasonry While the invisible arm guiding Cromwell was Rosicrucian Masonry, he, as a former Unitarian turned Puritan, was a recognized Protestant, making his rebellion in England look like a Protestant movement. Yet a careful study of Unitarianism will reveal that its religious dogma is identical to deistic Freemasonry. In fact, Oliver Cromwell was first and foremost a Mason, as were many of the Puritans. His Masonic affiliation was confirmed years later by French Freemasons, whose ceremonies originated with the Templars he ousted. Frenchmen claimed Cromwell was a high initiate of Masonic mysteries and used the system for his own elevation to power. 19 Abbe Larudan, a Catholic expert on Masonry from Amsterdam, in his book, The Freemasons Crushed (1746), claims that Oliver Cromwell "established the Order [of Freemasonry] for the furtherance of his [own] political designs," and that "Freemasonry was organized, its Degrees established, [and] its ceremonies and ritual prescribed" by Cromwell and several of the adherents he initiated. Larudan further alleges that "The Institution was used by Cromwell for the advancement of his projects, for the union of the contending parties in England, for the extirpation of the monarchy, and his own subsequent elevation to supreme power. "20

_________________
--
'Suppression of truth, human spirit and the holy chord of justice never works long-term. Something the suppressors never get.' David Southwell
http://aangirfan.blogspot.com
http://aanirfan.blogspot.com
Martin Van Creveld: Let me quote General Moshe Dayan: "Israel must be like a mad dog, too dangerous to bother."
Martin Van Creveld: I'll quote Henry Kissinger: "In campaigns like this the antiterror forces lose, because they don't win, and the rebels win by not losing."
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PostPosted: Thu Feb 07, 2019 6:27 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Cromwell family is an English aristocratic family. Its most famous members are: Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex, and Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector. The line of Oliver Cromwell descends from Richard Williams (alias Cromwell), son of Thomas Cromwell's sister Katherine and her husband Morgan Williams.
_________________
--
'Suppression of truth, human spirit and the holy chord of justice never works long-term. Something the suppressors never get.' David Southwell
http://aangirfan.blogspot.com
http://aanirfan.blogspot.com
Martin Van Creveld: Let me quote General Moshe Dayan: "Israel must be like a mad dog, too dangerous to bother."
Martin Van Creveld: I'll quote Henry Kissinger: "In campaigns like this the antiterror forces lose, because they don't win, and the rebels win by not losing."
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TonyGosling
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Location: St. Pauls, Bristol, England

PostPosted: Sat Feb 09, 2019 3:28 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Talking of 'keeping it in the family, It was Cromwell's son-in-law Thomas Pride who in 'Pride's Purge' purged parliament in December 1648 turning it from the Long parliament into the Rum Parliament - purged of all the MPs who didn't agree with Cromwell's attempts to get the king executed for treason.

Thomas Pride, d.1658
http://bcw-project.org/biography/thomas-pride

New Model Army officer and regicide who gave his name to the purge of Members of Parliament carried out by the Army prior to the King's trial and execution.

Portrait of Thomas PrideThe son of a Somerset yeoman, Thomas Pride set up a successful business as a brewer in London during the 1630s. When the First Civil War broke out, he was serving as an ensign in the Red regiment of the London Trained Bands. He enlisted as a captain in Colonel Barclay's regiment in the Earl of Essex's army and was a major by 1644.

On the formation of the New Model Army in 1645, Pride was promoted to lieutenant-colonel in Colonel Edward Harley's regiment. In Harley's absence during the campaigns of 1645, Pride was effectively commander of the regiment. He fought with distinction at Naseby, where his regiment was one of those that held firm against the Royalist advance, and at the storming of Bristol, where Pride's regiment was one of the first to scale the city walls.

During the political disturbances of 1647, Pride was one of the most militant of the officers who supported the soldiers' right to petition Parliament for redress of their grievances. His commanding officer Colonel Harley accused Pride of using threats to extract signatures for a petition circulating amongst the soldiers, and in April 1647 Pride was summoned to appear before Parliament to explain his conduct. He remained defiant and was active in organising the Vindication signed by 150 officers who continued to support the soldiers' right to petition Parliament. In July, Pride helped draft the articles of impeachment drawn up by the Army against the Presbyterian Eleven Members who were regarded as its leading enemies in Parliament. Colonel Harley, who had been elected recruiter MP for Herefordshire in November 1646, was one of the Eleven. When Harley withdrew from the Army out of loyalty to Parliament, Pride was promoted to colonel and took over command of the regiment.

In August 1647, the New Model Army marched into London in defiance of the Presbyterians. Pride's regiment was one of four vanguard regiments that occupied Southwark on 4 August. Five days later, several companies of the regiment escorted General Fairfax when he took possession of the Tower.


During the Second Civil War, Pride's regiment marched with Cromwell to the siege of Pembroke and the battle of Preston, where it played a significant role in the final defeat of the Scots at Winwick Pass. On his return to London, Pride was among the most vocal of the officers who demanded that King Charles I should be brought to account for provoking a second war.

Under orders from Commissary-General Henry Ireton, Pride commanded the troops that ejected the Members of Parliament who continued to favour a negotiated settlement with the King, thus giving his name to Pride's Purge in December 1648. Appointed to the High Court of Justice, Pride sat as a judge at the King's Trial and was one of the 59 signatories of the death warrant.

In 1650, Pride commanded a brigade at the battle of Dunbar and fought at Worcester in 1651. With the ending of the civil wars, he resumed his mercantile interests and became involved in local politics in London. He was appointed high sheriff of Surrey in 1655, and campaigned vigorously for reform of the law and the abolition of tithes. Despite his republican principles however, he was knighted by Cromwell in 1656 and nominated to the Upper House as Lord Pride in 1658, prompting accusations of hypocrisy from radicals. Amongst other land and property acquisitions, Pride had bought Henry VIII's old palace of Nonesuch during the Protectorate and was buried there when he died in October 1658, shortly after Richard Cromwell succeeded Oliver as Protector.

At the Restoration, Pride was posthumously attainted a traitor. His body was ordered to be exhumed and hanged in chains at Tyburn along with the corpses of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw, though in Pride's case, the order was never carried out.

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PostPosted: Sun Feb 10, 2019 12:54 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The trial of King Charles I – which began on 20th January 1649 – remains arguably the most dramatic and famous trial in English history. Monarchs had been deposed, and even murdered, before, but Charles was the first to be placed on public trial for his life by his own subjects, charged with waging war against the English people in a bloody civil war. His court, which served as both judge and jury, was a specially commissioned high court of justice of 156 civilians and soldiers, of whom – no doubt due to the status of the accused – only 101 attended any sessions of the trial. The most conspicuous absentee was Thomas, Lord Fairfax, general of the victorious New Model Army, whose wife, Lady Anne, allegedly cried out during the trial from the gallery that her husband ‘had more wit than to be there’ and that ‘not half, nor a quarter of the people of England’ supported the proceedings.

https://thehistoryofparliament.wordpress.com/2014/01/20/the-trial-of-c harles-i-an-early-modern-show-trial/

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PostPosted: Mon Feb 18, 2019 8:20 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Trial and Execution of Charles I: Right or Wrong?
Posted on September 28, 2013 by Kim Seabrook
http://www.prisonersofeternity.co.uk/the-trial-and-execution-of-charle s-i-right-or-wrong/

On 14 July 1645, on the fog-bound hills outside the small town of Naseby in Northamptonshire the heavily outnumbered army of King Charles I was routed by the forces of Parliament. It was to prove the turning point in a brutal and bloody civil war that had already cost the lives of hundreds of thousands of people.

In the ensuing months those towns and cities that remained loyal to the King surrendered and his armies still in the field were defeated and dispersed. By the turn of the year he was besieged in his capital at Oxford with no hope of relief but still he remained unwilling to surrender himself to a Parliament he considered no better than traitors and who he doubted he could not trust with his life.

On the night of 29 April 1646, he had his hair cut short and his beard trimmed before fleeing Oxford disguised as a commoner in the company of just his Chaplain Michael Hudson and personal attendant, Sir John Ashburnham. He was hoping to take ship to the Continent but with the ports closely monitored he was unable to do so. Afraid of falling into the wrong hands and with nowhere else to go he gave himself up to the Scottish Army based at Newark.

He thought he could get a better deal from the Scots than he would from his own Parliament but following the application of due deference and some fruitless negotiations, the Scots sold him on to the English for £400,000, prompting Charles to remark bitterly that he had been - bartered away rather cheaply.

In custody in England, Charles made play at reconciliation and indicated his willingness to negotiate whilst at the same time playing one side off against the other. He knew that Parliament was divided between moderates and religious and republican extremists, and that many wanted nothing more than a return to a stable Monarchy. He was in part right and they were indeed willing to consider him once more as their King but only on victor’s terms and as what they perceived to be a responsible Monarch subject to Parliament. This Charles could not be, his Kingship was a grant from God and he ruled by Divine Right. He was by nature and nurture incapable of being a Constitutional Monarch, but he was nonetheless determined to take advantage of the situation.

While Parliament continued its long, drawn out negotiations with the King, the Officers and men of the New Model Army grew increasingly frustrated. Indeed, to the point, where under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell and Henry Ireton they tried to circumvent Parliament by negotiating directly with the King themselves. This Charles was happy to do as he was playing the long game and looking less towards coming to an agreement than he was to renewing hostilities.

In November, 1647, Charles had escaped captivity and fled to the Isle of Wight where he believed the Governor, Robert Hammond, would be more sympathetic to his cause. He was not, yet though he was imprisoned once more his near escape only added to the urgency to come to a negotiated settlement. Charles however, continued to deflect the overtures made by both Cromwell and Parliament. His objectives lay elsewhere, namely in secret negotiations with his old nemesis, the Scots.

On 26 December 1647, whilst in captivity at Carisbrooke Castle he signed a Treaty with the Scots known as the "The Engagement" by which for the establishment of Presbyterianism in England for an initial period of three years the Scottish Army would invade England in support of Royalist uprisings throughout the country and restore Charles to his Throne. In the meantime, the King's agents would stir up unrest in those areas of the country still believed to be loyal to his person. But there was no real yearning amongst the people for a renewal of hostilities and when the uprisings began in July 1648, they were easily suppressed. The Scots held to their side of the bargain nonetheless and invaded England with an army 20,000 strong, but were cornered and routed on 19 August by Oliver Cromwell at the Battle of Preston. Charles's last chance of a Restoration under the old terms of his Kingship had been lost but little did he realise that his attempt to initiate a Second Civil War had also all but sealed his own fate, and would ultimately cost him his life.

Oliver Cromwell had been one of those within the divided New Model Army in favour of a negotiated settlement with the King. He now changed his mind. He considered Charles’s alliance with the Scots:

"A more prodigious treason than any that had been perfected before; because the former quarrel was that Englishmen might rule over one another, this to vassalise us to another nation."

What infuriated him even more was the refusal of the King to accept the Judgement of God passed down at the Battle of Marston Moor, Naseby, and elsewhere. He laid all the ills that had beset the country, all the blood-shed and the treasure lost, firmly at the feet of Charles Stuart.

He now believed it was God’s Will to settle with this King, this Man of Blood who said one thing and did another, who could not be trusted to keep his word, and that there would be no peace as long as he lived.

Despite Charles’s attempt to renew hostilities the long and painful negotiations between the emissaries of Parliament and the King’s person continued until at last it appeared as if a compromise had been reached.

On 1 December 1648, the Long Parliament which had sat in continual session since the beginning of the Civil War accepted the King's terms for his restoration to power by a vote of 129 to 83. Almost immediately the army voiced their objections and made it clear that they would not accept the outcome of the vote. By now the most powerful man in the country Oliver Cromwell ordered the suspension of Parliaments proceedings and the arrest of 41 of those MP's who had voted in favour of a Restoration.

Instead of being restored to his throne King Charles I would now stand trial for his life, charged with treason.

Five Days after Cromwell’s clampdown on 6 December, Colonel Thomas Pride surrounded the Chamber of the House of Commons with troops. As the MP's entered he checked their names against a list. He was, perhaps, a little over-zealous in his work for by the time he had finished only 71 of 489 MP's remained and 189 had been arrested and imprisoned. The Long Parliament which had sat for eight years had been dissolved. What remained became known as "the Rump" and it was to be a tool in the hands of Oliver Cromwell and the New Model Army.

Cromwell, who had been campaigning in the north, returned to London the following day and publicly endorsed Pride's Purge. He was determined "to cut the King's head off with the Crown on it" and now he had the means to do so.

On 4 January 1649, an Ordinance was placed before the Rump demanding that the King be tried for treason. Only 46 of the remaining 71 MP's turned up to vote and of these only 26 voted in favour, but it was enough. The following day the House of Lords overwhelmingly rejected the same proposal, but this was ignored.

There was no precedent for putting a reigning Monarch on trial and no mechanism for doing so. As a result the High Court of Justice, a special ad hoc Tribunal was created. The Tribunal was to be made up of 135 hand-picked members, though the majority of the most prominent men chosen, declined the invitation and only 68 of the so-called second-string ever turned up to witness the trial of the man they were to pass judgement on, which led Charles to mockingly declare that - he did recognise but eight of them.

The prosecution was to be led by the Solicitor-General Sir John Cook but Cromwell was unable to find anyone from among the Tribunal willing to serve as Chief Justice, so the role went to an ambitious but obscure lawyer from Northumberland, John Bradshaw.

It was to be no sham trial either, no grubby backroom assassination for Cromwell was determined that the proceedings of the Trial should be made as public as possible so that the people could witness for themselves the guilt of this King who had refused to accept the outcome of a war that he had started, his unquenchable desire for further blood, and the Judgement that God had passed upon him.

Charles reacted impassively upon being informed that he was to stand trial for his life and read the indictment with seeming indifference:

"For accomplishment of such his designs and for the protecting of himself and his adherents in his and their wicked practices to the same ends hath traitorously and maliciously levied war against the present Parliament, and the people therein represented . . . that the wicked designs, wars, and evil practices of him, the said Charles Stuart, have been, and are carried on for the advancement and the upholding of a personal interest of will, power, and pretended prerogative to himself and his family, against the public interest, common right, liberty, justice, and peace of the people of this nation."

Despite the sound and the fury of the religious zealots and republican extremists baying for the blood of the King, Cromwell was aware that there was little appetite among the common people for vengeance, or justice as he would have seen it. So the trial would not be a long drawn out affair, the rush to judgement would be swift and unhindered by equivocation.

The Trial of King Charles I began on 20 January 1649, at Westminster Hall in London. The Hall was lined with troops and as the King was led in many of the soldiers could be heard shouting -Justice! Justice! While those members of the public present almost universally responded with a chorus of - God Save the King!

Justice Bradshaw sat upon a high bench with the Judges lined up behind him and to his right were a sword and mace, the seals of his office. The King was partially concealed from the public in attendance by the shape of the dock.

The Court was packed but silence reigned as the charges were been read out:

"Out of a wicked design to erect and uphold in himself, an unlimited and tyrannical power to rule according to his will, and to overthrow the rights and liberties of the people of England, Charles Stuart is hereby charged with treason."

The Courtroom briefly erupted into tumult but once order had been restored the King was asked, how did he plea - Guilty or Not Guilty? The Court rapt, once more fell silent. But Charles, not recognising the legitimacy of the Court to try him, refused to enter a plea. Indeed, he did not even remove his hat which was seen as a mark of disrespect. At one point the top of the King’s cane fell to the floor and rolled towards the bench. There was an awkward pause as Charles waited for someone to pick it up for him. No one did and he was forced to leave his chair, stoop down and do so for himself. The disrespect was mutual.

Instead of entering a plea Charles, speaking loudly, with great firmness, and without his usual stammer questioned his presence in the courtroom:

"I would know by what power I am brought hither. What lawful power? For there are many kinds of power. Robbers on the highway. When I know by what lawful power I shall answer. Remember, I am your King, your lawful King - and the sins you bring upon your head, and the judgement of God upon this land, think well upon it, before you go from one sin to a greater."

Judge Bradshaw once more demanded that the King enter a plea to which he again requested to know by what authority he had been brought to this place? Bradshaw, increasingly impatient, curtly informed him that he was "brought to trial in the name of the people of England, of which you are elected King." To which Charles replied sharply, if somewhat quizzically,

"But England hath never been an elective Kingdom but a hereditary Kingdom these thousand years. I do stand more for the liberty of my people than any here that come to be my pretended judges."

The King’s refusal to plea had stymied the proceedings of the Court and little was achieved on the first day other than the charges being read out and the frequent sharp exchanges between the King and his prosecutors. As he was led from the Court he glanced upon the sword and said in a loud voice – And I am not afraid of that.

John Cook was angered by the arrogance of the King in refusing to plea but he also knew that he was acting on firm legal grounds. He was after all being charged with a crime that did not exist at the time it was supposedly committed. No King had ever been accused of betraying his people, and as a King who ruled by Divine Right there was no power in the land superior to him other than God. Parliament, however, interpreted it differently. Their proposal was that the: "King of England was not a person, but an office whose every occupant was entrusted with a limited power to govern according to the laws of the land and not otherwise."

Charles was also aware that according to English law, without a plea there could be no trial. The usual solution to the problem of a defendant refusing to enter a plea was to enact "peine forte et dure", or crushing the body with stones, known commonly as "pressing". It was described thus:

"The prisoner shall but put into a dark chamber, and there be laid on his back on the bare floor, naked, unless where decency forbids; that there upon his body be placed as great a weight as he could bear, and more that he hath no sustenance, save only on the first day, three morsels of the worst bread, and the second day three draughts of standing water, that should be alternately his daily diet till he died, or till he answered."

This was the law but no one contemplated forcing the King to endure such an ordeal but by not doing so it rendered the trial illegal. The Prosecutor John Cook knew this and he was to admit as such at his own trial many years later.

Over the next week Charles was asked to plead on three separate occasions but each time he refused. He still demanded to know by what authority he was being tried. An exasperated Bradshaw told him, "It is not for prisoners to require." To which the King with anger in his voice replied, "Sir, I am no ordinary prisoner!"

The sentiment of the people present seemed to be with the King; Daniel Axtell the Commander of the so-called Black Guard orchestrated his troops to drown out any cries in support of the King with shouts of Traitor! Justice!

An increasingly agitated Bradshaw, aware how unpopular the trial was with the public feared assassination and so wore a steel helmet for protection and surrounded himself with guards throughout the proceedings. He was prepared to trample over any legal niceties just to get it over with. If Charles would not plead, then he would not be able to call any witnesses in his defence. Dozens of witnesses were called for the prosecution however with each one delivering a damning indictment of Charles's personal rule, his contempt for Parliament and the law of the land, and of his unquenchable lust for the blood of his people.

On 27 January, Charles attended the Court for the last time to hear the verdict, and it was possible to hear a pin drop as it was read out:

"This Court doth adjudge that the said Charles Stuart, as a Tyrant, Traitor, Murderer, and a public and implacable Enemy to the Commonwealth of England and the good of this nation, shall be put to death by the severing of his head from his body."

There were audible gasps from the public gallery. A woman cried out "Not half, not a quarter of the people of England. Cromwell is the traitor!" It was Lady Fairfax, the wife of Sir Thomas Fairfax, the Commander-in-Chief of the Parliamentary Army and the man more responsible than any other for the King’s military defeat.

The muskets of the troops were levelled at her and Daniel Axtell shouted "Down with the whore" and ordered her be dragged from the Court.

The King now tried to speak but he was not permitted to do so; once a death sentence had been passed the convicted man was deemed already deceased. He was quickly ushered out of the building as the Court descended into chaos and had to be cleared by troops. Before being dragged from the Court Charles was heard to shout: "If I am not suffered to speak, imagine what justice other people will have."

Cromwell had got his way and he now desired not just to see the King put to death but the Monarchy with him. Now with the verdict given he was eager to get the job done. He summoned the 68 Commissioners who had passed the verdict to meet with him to collectively sign the death warrant. Many were reluctant to be the signatories to a King’s death and so it took much shouting and table thumping rage on his part to convince them to do so. One Commissioner even had his hand gripped by Cromwell himself and forced to put pen to paper.

Even so, despite all the bullying nine of the Commissioners steadfastly refused to sign and so be condemned before history as Regicides.

King Charles I of England was to be executed on 30 January 1649 just three days after the verdict had been pronounced. His wife and two eldest sons were by now safely abroad and during the little time left to him he was to receive few visitors.

Instead, the hours remaining he spent in private meditation except for an emotional final visit by his daughter Elizabeth and nine year old son, Henry.

On the morning of his execution he was permitted to walk his pet dog Rogue in the grounds of St James Palace. For his last meal he requested some bread and a single glass of wine. It was a bitterly cold day and he asked to be provided with an extra shirt remarking that, "the season is so sharp as probably may make me shake which some observers may imagine proceeds from fear. I would have no such imputation."

The execution had been delayed when the public hangman Richard Brandon and his assistant refused to carry it out and a replacement had to be found. A frantic search found two men with the required experience willing to do so, though the fee had to be increased to £100 and they were to be masked, and even today their identities remain a mystery which undoubtedly saved their lives following the Stuart Restoration.

At 2 pm on 30 January 1649, King Charles I was led from the dark interiors of the Banqueting House into the crisp, bright winter light and to the scaffold that had been draped in black for the occasion. The usual reveries before a public execution were absent, murmurings replaced cat-calls, and the many thousands present stood in silence as the condemned man turned to address them:

"I never did begin a war with the two Houses of Parliament. And I shall call God to witness, to whom I must shortly make an account, that I never did intend for to encroach upon their liberties. They began upon me. For the people, I truly desire their liberty and freedom as much as anybody whomsoever. But I must tell you, that liberty and freedom consists in having of Government those laws by which their laws and their God's be most their own. It is not for having a share in Government, Sir, that is nothing pertaining to them - a Subject and a Sovereign are clear different things.

If I had given way to an arbitrary way, for to have all laws changed according to the power of the sword, I needed not to come here, and therefore I tell you that I am a martyr of the people and I go from a corruptible to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be."

Having completed his peroration Charles removed his cloak and waistcoat and presented them to Dr Juxon who was standing beside him on the scaffold. His last recorded word was ‘Remember’, perhaps a reminder to his son not to forget this day and avenge his death. Then looking down upon the block he remarked that it was a little low and requested that it might be raised. The request was denied. He touched the blade of the axe to test its sharpness before without assistance laying his head upon the block. He then told the executioner not to strike before he had indicated for him to do so by stretching out his arms. He must be permitted to complete his prayers, he said.

After a few moments of whispered peroration and quiet reflection the sign was made and the axe severed the king’s head from his body at a single blow.

A witness later wrote that as the axe fell there was "such a groan by the thousands then present, as I never before and I desire, may never hear again."

As the Executioner held the King’s head aloft many people now rushed forward to dip their handkerchiefs in the blood hoping to acquire the healing qualities of the King's touch.

Following the King’s execution his corpse was laid out in a lead coffin draped in black velvet and taken to Windsor Castle where his head sewn back onto his body.

In February 1650, the Monarchy was formally abolished as "being dangerous and unnecessary to the freedom and liberties of the people of England," followed two days later by the House of Lords.

Shortly after, a Council of State was established to run the country with Oliver Cromwell it's Chairman - England had formally become a Republic and a Commonwealth.

William Laud, who had been Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I, described the King as "a mild and gracious prince who knew not how to be great, or how to be made great." But he was a stubborn man who was convinced that he ruled by the Grace of God alone. Always polite, he was nevertheless diffident and off-hand with people. His stammer and distinct Scottish accent made him unintelligible to some and only added to the general sense of arrogance and unwillingness to listen on his part.

Those who knew him and were able to penetrate the cold marble of his regality were loyal to the uttermost, but to most he appeared aloof and out-of-touch.

Even so, following his death Charles was never more popular and his Eikon Basilike, the book of his meditations, became an immediate bestseller. Indeed, so concerned were Parliament at the popularity of the book they commissioned the new Commonwealth’s primary polemicist John Milton to write a riposte to it but his Eikonoklastes, or image breaker, made little impact.

In fact, the longer the Commonwealth lasted the more the people fell out of love with it; they tired of the constant wars, the arrests and banishments, the abolition of Christmas, the Major-Generals and their moral crusade, so much so that when Oliver Cromwell died on 3 September 1658, and power passed to his son Richard, there was no longer any enthusiasm for it.

In 1660, following the Treaty of Breda, Charles I's son, also Charles, was restored to the throne as King Charles II. His reign deemed to have started the day after his father's execution. Much like the Commonwealth before him he also undertook an act of public vengeance. Those who had signed the King's death warrant were hunted down, tried, and executed.

On 30 January, 1660, the corpses of those regicides who had died including Oliver Cromwell and John Bradshaw were disinterred, beheaded, and hanged in their funeral shrouds from gibbets at Tyburn.

Others who had signed the King's Death Warrant and still lived were hunted down, tried, and executed. While any who were in exile abroad remained liable to assassination.

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PostPosted: Sat Jun 29, 2019 11:52 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Chronological List of English Grand Masters and Patrons from 557 AD to 1843 AD
by Moe | Freemasonry
https://gnosticwarrior.com/list-of-english-grand-masters.html

(By Freemason, Gnostic and author, Hank Kraychir) – In my personal quest to discover as much about English Masonic history as I can, I came across a book written by Reverend George Oliver, it’s called, Masonic Library, the Antiquities of Freemasonry (1854). Within the book, I found a chronological list of Grand Masters and Patrons of Masonry in England, which just so happened to date it back to 557 AD ~ an important date I had written about earlier.

Sadly, I have heard it time and time again that there is no proof that Masonry existed prior to the era of 1717; that it is only a folklore narrative. Well, I think I found some more pretty compelling data to help bolster my position, which is listed below.

In the following chronological list, I specified the quote first, which is highlighted with a link about the Grand Master or Patron; and many times, when I found supporting information from another source, often from a non-Masonic source, I added another link right under it. Feel free to follow these links, which has additional and supporting data to ponder about historic English Masonry and the individual mentioned. I also did not add any supporting links after the 1717 period, only because the issue at hand is did Masonry exist in England prior to that date, not after it.

And here it is, a well prepared chronological list of past English Grand Masters and Patrons from 557 AD to 1843 AD, which started on page ix and ended on page xi in the preface section of Reverend George Oliver’s 1854 book, Masonic Library, the Antiquities of Freemasonry:

The following chronological list of Grand Masters and Patrons, from the time of the Anglo-Saxons, will be a decisive testimony that the order contains nothing repugnant to civil or religious liberty:

557 Austin the monk.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Augustine… distinguished himself by being at the head of the fraternity…”)

(Ed. Note: According to Francis Drake, Edwin, the first Christian King of the Nortbumbers formed Britain’s first Grand Lodge sometime between 617 and 633 AD; and was its Grand Master).

680 Bennet, Abbot of Wirrall.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “under the direction of Bennet, Abbot of Wirral, who was appointed superintendent of the masons by Kinred, King of Mercia. From this time, however, little is known of the fraternity, until the year 856, when St. Swithin was the superintendent, appointed by Ethelwolf; from which time it gradually improved till the year 872, when King Alfred took the command of it.”)

836 St. Swithin.

(Ed Note: follow link, “St. Swithin was Grand Master…”)

872 King Alfred.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “King Alfred had about him the belt Architects, and employed the fellow-crafts wholly in brick and stone… p. 83).

900 Ethred, Prince of Mercia.

(Ed. Note: may be misspelled?)

928 Athelstan.

(Ed. Note: follow link, from an 1739 publication, “King Athelstan, the first anointed king of England, made his brother Edwin Grand Master…)

957 Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Dunstan was Grand Master of the fraternity of free and accepted Masons in England.”)

1041 Edward the Confessor.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “a patron of Masonry in England in 1041.”)

1066 Gondulph, Bishop of Rochester.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “William the Conqueror appointed Gondulph, Bishop of Rochester, to preside over the society.”)

1100 Henry I.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Grand Master… Henry I next succeeded, and in 1135 Westminister, now the House of Commons was built.”)

1135 Gilbert de Clare, Marquis of Pembroke.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “The president of the lodges being Gilbert de Clare, Marquis of Pembroke.”)

1155 The Grand Master of the Templars.

(Ed. Note: Richard de Hastings was Master of England)

1199 Peter de Colechurch.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “and Peter de Colechurch was then appointed Grand Master.”)

1216 Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester.

(Ed. Note: Peter des Roches? follow link, “Peter de Rupibus, succeeded as grand master, and Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, chief surveyor of the King’s works, acted as deputy under him.”)

1272 Walter Gilford, Archbishop of York.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “when Walter Gilford, Archbishop of York, was grand master.”)

1307 Walter Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “under Walter Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter, who had been elected grand master in 1307.”

1327 Edward III.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Edward III, not only patronized the masons, but studied the constitutions of the order, revised the ancient charges, and added several regulations to the original code.”

1357 William a Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “William a Wykeham was elected grand master…”)

1375 Simon Langham, Abbot of Westminster.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “called the king’s Free-mason, Simon Langham…)

1377 William a Wykeham, again.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “William a Wykeham was elected grand master…”)

1400 Thomas Fitz Allen, Earl of Surrey.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “He appointed Thomas Fitz Allen, Earl of Surrey, as grand master.”)

1413 Henry Chichely, Archbishop of Canterbury.

(Ed. Note:, follow link, “On the accession of Henry V, the fraternity were governed by Henry Chichely, Archbishop of Canter…”

1443 William Waynfleet, Bishop of Winchester.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Henry VI. initiated into Masonry in the year 1442, but the King himself presided over Lodges, and, moreover, the King nominated William Waynfleet, Bishop of Winchester, for Grand Master.”)

1471 Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “The fraternity prospered till the commencement of the wars of York and Lancaster, but from that time declined. It however rose again under Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, Grand Master.)

1500 The Grand Master of the order of St. John. Henry VII Patron.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “who assembled their Grand Lodge in 1500, and chose Henry for their protector.”

1502 Henry VII.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “24th June, henry VII. presided as grand master at a lodge held in his palace…”

1515 Cardinal Wolsey.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “On the accession of Henry VIII. Cardinal Wolsey was appointed grand-master…”)

1530 Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Wolfey was succeeded as grand master in 1534 by Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex…”

1543 John Touchett, Lord Audley.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Cromwell being beheaded in 1540, John Touchett… succeeded to office of grand-master, and built Magdalen college, in Cambridge, and many other structures.”)

1549 Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset. Grand Master 1549.”

1552 John Poynet, Bishop of Winchester.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “In 1552, John Poynet, Bishop of Winchester, became the patron of the institution…”)

1560 Sir Thomas Sackville.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “In this year Sir Thomas Sackville resigned the office of Grand Master of the Freemasons.”)

1567 Sir Thomas Gresham, in the South.

(Ed. Note: notice the word “South.” This is meant to signify two Grand Masters).

1567 Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford, in the North.

(Ed. Note: notice the word “North.” This is meant to signify two Grand Masters).

1580 Charles Howard, Earl of Effingham.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Charles Howard, Earl of Effingham, who continued to preside over the lodges…”)

1588 George Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “George Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon, was chosen grand-master…”)

1603 King James I, Patron

(Ed. Note: follow link, “it was at the same time patronized, the sister kingdom, by King James I. By the authority of this monarch, every Grand Master who was chosen by the brethren, either from the nobility or clergy, and approved of by the crown was entitled to an annual revenue of…”)

– Inigo Jones, Grand Master

(Ed. Note: follow link, “He was named Grand Master of England, and was deputed by the King to preside over the lodges.”)

1618 William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke.

(Ed Note: follow link, “William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, grand master of the household of Queen Elizabeth.”

1625 King Charles I.

(Ed. Note, follow link, “King James the first… to be hereditary Grand Master of the order.”)

1630 Henry Danvers, Earl of Danby.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “office of grand master… till the year 1630, when he resigned in favour of Henry Danvers, Earl of Danby.”)

1633 Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “grand master… who was succeeded in 1633 by Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel…”).

1635 Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “was chosen grand master, and was succeeded in AD 1635, by Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford…”)

1636 Inigo Jones, again.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “He was named Grand Master of England, and was deputed by the King to preside over the lodges.”)

1643 Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans was elected Grand Master…”)

1666 Thomas Savage, Earl of Rivers.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “A.D. 1666, Thomas Savage, Earl of Rivers, succeeded the Earl of St. Albans as Grand Master…”

1674 George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “In 1674, Earl of Rivers resigned the office of grand-master in favour of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham…”)

1679 Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “and he by Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington…”). This book was published in 1739.

1685 Sir Christopher Wren.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Sir Christopher Wren was elected to the office of grandmaster…”)

1698 Charles Lenox, Duke of Richmond.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Many of the nobility also were present at a general assembly and feast held in 1697: particularly Charles, Duke of Richmond and Lenox, who was elected grand master for the year…”)

– Sir Christopher Wren, again.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Sir Christopher Wren was elected to the office of grandmaster…”)

NO NEED TO ADD ANY FURTHER RESEARCH PAST THIS DATE IN ORDER TO CONFIRM MASONRY EXISTED PRIOR TO 1717:
1717 Anthony Sayer, Esq.

1718 George Payne, Esq.

1719 Dr. Desaguliers.

1720 George Payne, Esq., again.

1721 John, Duke of Montagu.

1722 Philip, Duke of Wharton.

1723 The Duke of Buccleugh.

1724 The Duke of Richmond.

1725 The Earl of Abercorn.

1726 William O’Brien, Earl of Incbiquia.

1727 Lord Coleraine.

1728 Lord Kingston.

1729 Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk.

1731 Lord Lovel.

1732 Anthony Brown, Viscount Montacute.

1733 The Earl of Strathmore.

1734 The Earl of Crawford.

1735 Thomas Thynne. Viscount Weymouth.

1736 John Cambell, Earl of Loudon.

1738 H. Brydgeg, Marquis of Carnarvon.

1739 Lord Raymond.

1740 The Earl of Kinton.

1741 The Earl of Morton.

1742 John Ward, Lord Dudley and Ward.

1745 James, Lord Cranstown.

1747 Lord Byron.

1752 John, Lord Carysfort.

1754 Marquis of Carnarvon, again.

1757 Sholto, Lord Aberdour.

1762 Washington Shirley, Earl Ferrers.

1764 Lord Blaney.

1767 Henry, Duke of Beaufort.

1772 Robert Edward. Lord Petre.

1777 George, Duke of Manchester.

1782 H.R.H. Frederick, Duke of Cumberland.

1700 H.R.H. George, Prince of Wales.

1813 H.R.H. Augustus Frederic, Duke of Sussex, at the Union

1843 The Earl of Zetland, Acting

By the way, the above chronological list is supported by an earlier publication from 1767, The Constitutions of the Ancient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons ~ sound familiar? It should, it’s the constitution the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons used in England during the 18th century. This list can also be found in an even earlier publication, The Complete Free Mason: Or Multa Paucis for Lovers of Secrets, which was originally published four years earlier in 1763. In fact, the earliest publication found that had a similar list came from the 1739 book called, The History of the Works of the Learned, which was written by Jacob Robinson, page 332.
Therefore, I will add this additional research to my previous posts, First Grand Lodge of England 926 AD, not 1717 AD, and Dating the Foundation of English Masonry to 557 AD, to help bolster the belief that ancient Masonry can be well established if only one is looking for it; rather than simply saying it never existed based on no research, just opinions.

So Mote It Be!!!

Hank Kraychir

Author Credit

Hank KrachirThis article is by Freemason, Gnostic and author, Hank Kraychir. The original article can be found on his blog, Gnosis Masonry.

_________________
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www.rethink911.org
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www.actorsandartistsfor911truth.org
www.mediafor911truth.org
www.pilotsfor911truth.org
www.mp911truth.org
www.ae911truth.org
www.rl911truth.org
www.stj911.org
www.v911t.org
www.thisweek.org.uk
www.abolishwar.org.uk
www.elementary.org.uk
www.radio4all.net/index.php/contributor/2149
http://utangente.free.fr/2003/media2003.pdf
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TonyGosling
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 29, 2019 11:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Chronological List of English Grand Masters and Patrons from 557 AD to 1843 AD
by Moe | Freemasonry
https://gnosticwarrior.com/list-of-english-grand-masters.html

(By Freemason, Gnostic and author, Hank Kraychir) – In my personal quest to discover as much about English Masonic history as I can, I came across a book written by Reverend George Oliver, it’s called, Masonic Library, the Antiquities of Freemasonry (1854). Within the book, I found a chronological list of Grand Masters and Patrons of Masonry in England, which just so happened to date it back to 557 AD ~ an important date I had written about earlier.

Sadly, I have heard it time and time again that there is no proof that Masonry existed prior to the era of 1717; that it is only a folklore narrative. Well, I think I found some more pretty compelling data to help bolster my position, which is listed below.

In the following chronological list, I specified the quote first, which is highlighted with a link about the Grand Master or Patron; and many times, when I found supporting information from another source, often from a non-Masonic source, I added another link right under it. Feel free to follow these links, which has additional and supporting data to ponder about historic English Masonry and the individual mentioned. I also did not add any supporting links after the 1717 period, only because the issue at hand is did Masonry exist in England prior to that date, not after it.

And here it is, a well prepared chronological list of past English Grand Masters and Patrons from 557 AD to 1843 AD, which started on page ix and ended on page xi in the preface section of Reverend George Oliver’s 1854 book, Masonic Library, the Antiquities of Freemasonry:

The following chronological list of Grand Masters and Patrons, from the time of the Anglo-Saxons, will be a decisive testimony that the order contains nothing repugnant to civil or religious liberty:

557 Austin the monk.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Augustine… distinguished himself by being at the head of the fraternity…”)

(Ed. Note: According to Francis Drake, Edwin, the first Christian King of the Nortbumbers formed Britain’s first Grand Lodge sometime between 617 and 633 AD; and was its Grand Master).

680 Bennet, Abbot of Wirrall.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “under the direction of Bennet, Abbot of Wirral, who was appointed superintendent of the masons by Kinred, King of Mercia. From this time, however, little is known of the fraternity, until the year 856, when St. Swithin was the superintendent, appointed by Ethelwolf; from which time it gradually improved till the year 872, when King Alfred took the command of it.”)

836 St. Swithin.

(Ed Note: follow link, “St. Swithin was Grand Master…”)

872 King Alfred.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “King Alfred had about him the belt Architects, and employed the fellow-crafts wholly in brick and stone… p. 83).

900 Ethred, Prince of Mercia.

(Ed. Note: may be misspelled?)

928 Athelstan.

(Ed. Note: follow link, from an 1739 publication, “King Athelstan, the first anointed king of England, made his brother Edwin Grand Master…)

957 Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Dunstan was Grand Master of the fraternity of free and accepted Masons in England.”)

1041 Edward the Confessor.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “a patron of Masonry in England in 1041.”)

1066 Gondulph, Bishop of Rochester.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “William the Conqueror appointed Gondulph, Bishop of Rochester, to preside over the society.”)

1100 Henry I.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Grand Master… Henry I next succeeded, and in 1135 Westminister, now the House of Commons was built.”)

1135 Gilbert de Clare, Marquis of Pembroke.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “The president of the lodges being Gilbert de Clare, Marquis of Pembroke.”)

1155 The Grand Master of the Templars.

(Ed. Note: Richard de Hastings was Master of England)

1199 Peter de Colechurch.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “and Peter de Colechurch was then appointed Grand Master.”)

1216 Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester.

(Ed. Note: Peter des Roches? follow link, “Peter de Rupibus, succeeded as grand master, and Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, chief surveyor of the King’s works, acted as deputy under him.”)

1272 Walter Gilford, Archbishop of York.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “when Walter Gilford, Archbishop of York, was grand master.”)

1307 Walter Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “under Walter Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter, who had been elected grand master in 1307.”

1327 Edward III.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Edward III, not only patronized the masons, but studied the constitutions of the order, revised the ancient charges, and added several regulations to the original code.”

1357 William a Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “William a Wykeham was elected grand master…”)

1375 Simon Langham, Abbot of Westminster.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “called the king’s Free-mason, Simon Langham…)

1377 William a Wykeham, again.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “William a Wykeham was elected grand master…”)

1400 Thomas Fitz Allen, Earl of Surrey.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “He appointed Thomas Fitz Allen, Earl of Surrey, as grand master.”)

1413 Henry Chichely, Archbishop of Canterbury.

(Ed. Note:, follow link, “On the accession of Henry V, the fraternity were governed by Henry Chichely, Archbishop of Canter…”

1443 William Waynfleet, Bishop of Winchester.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Henry VI. initiated into Masonry in the year 1442, but the King himself presided over Lodges, and, moreover, the King nominated William Waynfleet, Bishop of Winchester, for Grand Master.”)

1471 Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “The fraternity prospered till the commencement of the wars of York and Lancaster, but from that time declined. It however rose again under Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, Grand Master.)

1500 The Grand Master of the order of St. John. Henry VII Patron.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “who assembled their Grand Lodge in 1500, and chose Henry for their protector.”

1502 Henry VII.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “24th June, henry VII. presided as grand master at a lodge held in his palace…”

1515 Cardinal Wolsey.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “On the accession of Henry VIII. Cardinal Wolsey was appointed grand-master…”)

1530 Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Wolfey was succeeded as grand master in 1534 by Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex…”

1543 John Touchett, Lord Audley.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Cromwell being beheaded in 1540, John Touchett… succeeded to office of grand-master, and built Magdalen college, in Cambridge, and many other structures.”)

1549 Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset. Grand Master 1549.”

1552 John Poynet, Bishop of Winchester.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “In 1552, John Poynet, Bishop of Winchester, became the patron of the institution…”)

1560 Sir Thomas Sackville.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “In this year Sir Thomas Sackville resigned the office of Grand Master of the Freemasons.”)

1567 Sir Thomas Gresham, in the South.

(Ed. Note: notice the word “South.” This is meant to signify two Grand Masters).

1567 Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford, in the North.

(Ed. Note: notice the word “North.” This is meant to signify two Grand Masters).

1580 Charles Howard, Earl of Effingham.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Charles Howard, Earl of Effingham, who continued to preside over the lodges…”)

1588 George Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “George Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon, was chosen grand-master…”)

1603 King James I, Patron

(Ed. Note: follow link, “it was at the same time patronized, the sister kingdom, by King James I. By the authority of this monarch, every Grand Master who was chosen by the brethren, either from the nobility or clergy, and approved of by the crown was entitled to an annual revenue of…”)

– Inigo Jones, Grand Master

(Ed. Note: follow link, “He was named Grand Master of England, and was deputed by the King to preside over the lodges.”)

1618 William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke.

(Ed Note: follow link, “William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, grand master of the household of Queen Elizabeth.”

1625 King Charles I.

(Ed. Note, follow link, “King James the first… to be hereditary Grand Master of the order.”)

1630 Henry Danvers, Earl of Danby.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “office of grand master… till the year 1630, when he resigned in favour of Henry Danvers, Earl of Danby.”)

1633 Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “grand master… who was succeeded in 1633 by Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel…”).

1635 Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “was chosen grand master, and was succeeded in AD 1635, by Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford…”)

1636 Inigo Jones, again.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “He was named Grand Master of England, and was deputed by the King to preside over the lodges.”)

1643 Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans was elected Grand Master…”)

1666 Thomas Savage, Earl of Rivers.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “A.D. 1666, Thomas Savage, Earl of Rivers, succeeded the Earl of St. Albans as Grand Master…”

1674 George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “In 1674, Earl of Rivers resigned the office of grand-master in favour of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham…”)

1679 Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “and he by Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington…”). This book was published in 1739.

1685 Sir Christopher Wren.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Sir Christopher Wren was elected to the office of grandmaster…”)

1698 Charles Lenox, Duke of Richmond.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Many of the nobility also were present at a general assembly and feast held in 1697: particularly Charles, Duke of Richmond and Lenox, who was elected grand master for the year…”)

– Sir Christopher Wren, again.

(Ed. Note: follow link, “Sir Christopher Wren was elected to the office of grandmaster…”)

NO NEED TO ADD ANY FURTHER RESEARCH PAST THIS DATE IN ORDER TO CONFIRM MASONRY EXISTED PRIOR TO 1717:
1717 Anthony Sayer, Esq.

1718 George Payne, Esq.

1719 Dr. Desaguliers.

1720 George Payne, Esq., again.

1721 John, Duke of Montagu.

1722 Philip, Duke of Wharton.

1723 The Duke of Buccleugh.

1724 The Duke of Richmond.

1725 The Earl of Abercorn.

1726 William O’Brien, Earl of Incbiquia.

1727 Lord Coleraine.

1728 Lord Kingston.

1729 Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk.

1731 Lord Lovel.

1732 Anthony Brown, Viscount Montacute.

1733 The Earl of Strathmore.

1734 The Earl of Crawford.

1735 Thomas Thynne. Viscount Weymouth.

1736 John Cambell, Earl of Loudon.

1738 H. Brydgeg, Marquis of Carnarvon.

1739 Lord Raymond.

1740 The Earl of Kinton.

1741 The Earl of Morton.

1742 John Ward, Lord Dudley and Ward.

1745 James, Lord Cranstown.

1747 Lord Byron.

1752 John, Lord Carysfort.

1754 Marquis of Carnarvon, again.

1757 Sholto, Lord Aberdour.

1762 Washington Shirley, Earl Ferrers.

1764 Lord Blaney.

1767 Henry, Duke of Beaufort.

1772 Robert Edward. Lord Petre.

1777 George, Duke of Manchester.

1782 H.R.H. Frederick, Duke of Cumberland.

1700 H.R.H. George, Prince of Wales.

1813 H.R.H. Augustus Frederic, Duke of Sussex, at the Union

1843 The Earl of Zetland, Acting

By the way, the above chronological list is supported by an earlier publication from 1767, The Constitutions of the Ancient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons ~ sound familiar? It should, it’s the constitution the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons used in England during the 18th century. This list can also be found in an even earlier publication, The Complete Free Mason: Or Multa Paucis for Lovers of Secrets, which was originally published four years earlier in 1763. In fact, the earliest publication found that had a similar list came from the 1739 book called, The History of the Works of the Learned, which was written by Jacob Robinson, page 332.
Therefore, I will add this additional research to my previous posts, First Grand Lodge of England 926 AD, not 1717 AD, and Dating the Foundation of English Masonry to 557 AD, to help bolster the belief that ancient Masonry can be well established if only one is looking for it; rather than simply saying it never existed based on no research, just opinions.

So Mote It Be!!!

Hank Kraychir

Author Credit

Hank KrachirThis article is by Freemason, Gnostic and author, Hank Kraychir. The original article can be found on his blog, Gnosis Masonry.

_________________
www.lawyerscommitteefor9-11inquiry.org
www.rethink911.org
www.patriotsquestion911.com
www.actorsandartistsfor911truth.org
www.mediafor911truth.org
www.pilotsfor911truth.org
www.mp911truth.org
www.ae911truth.org
www.rl911truth.org
www.stj911.org
www.v911t.org
www.thisweek.org.uk
www.abolishwar.org.uk
www.elementary.org.uk
www.radio4all.net/index.php/contributor/2149
http://utangente.free.fr/2003/media2003.pdf
"The maintenance of secrets acts like a psychic poison which alienates the possessor from the community" Carl Jung
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 06, 2019 11:10 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Scottish rite Templar origins?
No, York - the traditional origin of Freemasonry


The historic, walled city of York, in the northeast of England, was founded by the Romans in 71 AD. The city, if legend is to be believed, is where the very first organized Masonic meetings in the British isles took place, dating all the way back to the year 926. It was then that King Athelstan (the very first King of England) and his son, Edwin, convened a grand council of trade Masons, and a Masonic constitution was adopted. While no clear written documents exist to prove it, York is considered the legendary birthplace of Freemasonry.
https://georgewashingtoncave.org/2018/11/26/george-washington-and-his- masonic-brethren/

York is also where the Fairfax family originates from. Although the family title, Lord Fairfax of Cameron, is in the Peerage of Scotland, the Lords of Fairfax belong to an ancient Yorkshire family. The original Thomas Fairfax, in 1489, had the order of succession of the family Estate (at Gilling Castle) laid down; he later was knighted in 1495, becoming Sir Thomas Fairfax.

Between 1515 and about 1700 the Fairfax family resided at Denton Hall. While it no longer exists, Denton was a country house located between the small North Yorkshire towns of Otley and Ilkley. In 1627 the Lordship title was created by King Charles I, and it continues in the Fairfax family even to this day.

_________________
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www.mediafor911truth.org
www.pilotsfor911truth.org
www.mp911truth.org
www.ae911truth.org
www.rl911truth.org
www.stj911.org
www.v911t.org
www.thisweek.org.uk
www.abolishwar.org.uk
www.elementary.org.uk
www.radio4all.net/index.php/contributor/2149
http://utangente.free.fr/2003/media2003.pdf
"The maintenance of secrets acts like a psychic poison which alienates the possessor from the community" Carl Jung
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